Metrika članka

  • citati u SCindeksu: 0
  • citati u Google Scholaru:[=>]
  • posete u prethodnih 30 dana:0
  • preuzimanja u prethodnih 30 dana:0
članak: 1 od 1  
Anali Pravnog fakulteta u Beogradu
2014, vol. 62, br. 3, str. 5-16
jezik rada: engleski
neklasifikovan
doi:10.5937/AnaliPFB1403005K


Compensation for violations of the laws of war: The Varvarin case before German and international courts
(naslov ne postoji na srpskom)
aUniversity of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland
bMJI, Federal Foreign Office, Berlin, Germany

e-adresa: stefan.kirchner@ulapland.fi

Sažetak

(ne postoji na srpskom)
As has happened in many wars, during NATO's 1999 war against Yugoslavia innocent civilians became accidental targets. International Humanitarian Law (IHL) prohibits indiscriminate attacks, that is, attacks which do not distinguish between legitimate military targets and civilians. A NATO aircraft bombed the bridge in Varvarin, resulting in the death of several civilians. Although the aircraft had not been German, family members of those who had been killed sued for compensation in German courts on the basis of Germany's NATO membership. German law includes rules on compensation for illegal activities by public authorities. In the Varvarin case, German courts have continued to find that these rules are not applicable to armed conflicts. In autumn 2013, the German Federal Constitutional Court upheld this jurisprudence. This article shows the shortcomings of this approach as well as the gaps in current International Humanitarian Law concerning compensation for victims of violations of the laws of war.

Ključne reči

Reference

*** Art. 52 of the 1st Additional Protocol to the Geneva Conventions
*** (1907) Convention IV respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its annex: Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land. The Hague, 18 October, Internet, 25/05/2003, http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/73cb71d18dc4372741256739003e6372/4d47f92df3966a7ec12563cd002d6788?OpenDocument
*** (1963) Vienna Convention on consular relations. 24 April, available online at https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume%20596/volume-596-I-8638-English. pdf last accessed 21 March 2014
*** (2004) International Court of Justice, Avena and other Mexican Nationals (Mexico v. United States of America), Judgment of 31 March 2004. u: I.C.J. Reports
*** (1950) Convention for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms (European Convention on Human Rights). u: European Treaty Series, 4 November, No. 5, available online at http://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Convention_ENG.pdf last accessed 22 March 2014
*** (1896) Burgerliches Gesetzbuch. 18 August, as promulgated on 2 January 2002, last changed on 1 October 2013, available online at http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bundesrecht/bgb/gesamt.pdf last accessed 22 March 2014
Bayefsky, A.F. (2001) The UN human rights treaty system. Ardsley: Transnational Publishers
Bayesky, A.F. (2003) How to complain to the UN human rights treaty system. Ardsley: Transnational Publishers
Bundesgerichtshof (2003) Case no. III ZR 245/98. Judgment of 26 June, available online at http://openjur.de/u/66929.html last accessed 21 March 2014
Bundesgerichtshof (2006) Case no. III ZR 190/05. Judgment of 2 November, available online at http://juris.bundesgerichtshof.de/cgi-bin/rechtsprechung/document.py?Gericht=bgh&Art=en&nr=38105&pos=0&anz=1 last accessed 22 March 2014
Bundesgerichtshof (1996) Case no. III ZR 40/95, Judgment of 13 June 1996. Neue Juristische Wochenschrift, 3208
Bundesverfassungsgericht BVerfGE Case no. 2 BvL 33/93, Order of 13 May 1996: Collection of the Decisions of the German Federal Constitutional Court. 94, 315, 334, available online at http://www.servat.unibe.ch/dfr/bv094315.html last accessed 22 March 2014
Bundesverfassungsgericht (2013) Case no. 2 BvR 487/07. Order of 13 August, available online at http://www.bverfg.de/entscheidungen/rk20130813_2bvr266006.html last accessed 22 March 2014
Cassese, A. (2001) International law. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Grimes, D.I., Rawcliffe, J., Smith, J., eds. (2006) Operational law handbook. Charlottesville: The Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center and School-International and Operational Law Department, 2006, 155
Heintze, H. (2007) Durchsetzung eines menschenrechtlichen Mindeststandards in bewaffneten Konflikten. Sicherheit und Frieden, 25: 43-49
International Court of Justice (1998) Case concerning the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (Paraguay v. United States of America). u: I. C. J. Reports, Order of 10 November, 426
International Court of Justice (2001) La Grand (Germany v. United States of America). I.C.J. Reports, Judgment of 27 June, 2001, 466
Jung, R. (2003) Die Brucke von Vavarin. Frankfurter Rundschau Online, 14 October 2003, www.fr-online.de (also available at http://aldeilis.net/german/die-bruecke-von-varvarin/), last accessed 21 March 2014
Kirchner, S. (2011) Völkerrechtliche Immunitaten und die Frage der Entschädigung für Verletzungen des Humanitären Völkerrechts im Kontext des Globalisierungsdiskurses. Munich: Grin-Berlag, 58
Kirchner, S.S. (2008) The right to consular assistance: Is the Vienna Convention on consular relations self-executing?. Social Science Research Network, 8 January 2008, available online at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1081584 last accessed 22 March 2014
Landgericht Bonn (2003) Case no. 1 O 361/02. Judgment of 10 December, available online at http://openjur.de/u/100649.html last accessed 21 March 2014
Oberlandesgericht Köln (2005) Case no. 7 U 7/04. Judgment of 28 July, available online at http://openjur.de/u/112612.html last accessed 22 March 2014
Oberlandesgericht Koln (1998) Case no. 7 U 167/97. Judgment of 27 August, available online at http://openjur.de/u/154971.html last accessed 21 March 2014
Pestalozza, C. (1996) Article 74. u: von Mangoldt H., Klein F., Pestalozza C. [ur.] Das Bonner Grundgesetz, Munich: Verlag Franz Vahlen, 3, Article 74, margin no. 438
Quénivet, N. (2004) The varvarin case : The legal standing of individuals as subjects of international humanitarian law. Journal of Military Ethics, 3(2): 181-187
Quigley, S.J. (2009) The United States' withdrawal from International Court of Justice jurisdiction in consular cases: Reasons and consequences. Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law, 19 : 263, 265
United States Government Accountability Office GAO (2007) Military operations: The Department of defense's use of Solatia and condolence payments in Iraq and Afghanistan. Washington, DC, Report to Congressional Requesters, available online at http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07699.pdf last accessed 22 March 2014
United States of America (2014) Code of Federal regulations. Title 32, Subtitle A, Chapter V, Subchapter B, Part 536, Subpart J, Section 536.145 (32 CFR 536.145), available online at http://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/32/536.145 last accessed 22 March 2014