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Vojnotehnički glasnik
2010, vol. 58, iss. 1, pp. 185-203
article language: Serbian
document type: Professional Paper

Spatial data modeling in the real estate cadastre using ISO 19100 series of standards
Centar za komandno-informacione sisteme i informatičku podršku, VS, Beograd



Introduction Standardization in geo-information technologies contributes to the establishment of efficient information functions, their greater stability and easier transition. Application of international, national and internal standards in the process of developing software products in the field of geo-information technology creates conditions for the development of efficient, low cost, reliable and secure software products. Spatial data modeling basics for real estate cadastre In terms of modeling, the spatial information of real estate cadastre is based on the vector data model which is suitable for modeling objects with a smaller number of properties with emphasis on the position. The vector spatial data model consists of two components: spatial and descriptive. The basis of the spatial one is geometry that contains metric data usually given in coordinates of a reference system. Geometry and Topology uniquely determine the shape, size and position of the object model in space, i.e. they represent its spatial component. Merging the spatial component with the descriptive one results in a completely defined object from the real world. Elements of spatial data quality Spatial data quality can be reviewed through a set of the following elements: origin, positional accuracy, attribute accuracy, completeness, logical consistency, semantic accuracy and the time information. The elements of spatial data quality listed above are provided using ISO 19100 series of standards. Application of ISO19100 series of standards in spatial data modeling for real estate cadastre Standards brought by the ISO organization have their wide application in the field of geographic information systems, including the cadastre and real estate, primarily in spatial data modeling. Cadastral systems must be generic and flexible to meet the demands that arise or change over time. Flexible information systems are one of the most important items of Driving Model Architecture (MDA). MDA is based on information systems models described in UML language. Other advantages of the MDA approach are especially prominent in today's highly variable IT environment. These advantages are portability, interoperability, platform independence. Series of ISO19100 standards are supporting the implementation of MDA. A model of a modern cadastre would be defined in accordance with current ISO standards and structured in a logically related components - document: business processes (UML Use Case Diagrams), UML Application Scheme, GML Schema Application, catalog of objects, metadata catalog, symbol catalog, coordinate system. ISO standards integration Components of the modern real estate cadastre model integrate several ISO standards simultaneously. A cadastral application scheme is a crucial component of the model data. The application Schema defines: data structure, attributes of object classes, specification of operations for manipulating and processing, conditions of integrity. The cadastral Application UML schema is an object-oriented conceptual scheme of the real estate cadastre, intended for implementation in modern geospatial databases. International Standard ISO 19109 defines rules for creating a consistent Application Scheme (including a consistent definition of object classes), for the purpose of collecting, processing, analyzing, accessing, presentation and distribution of spatial data. ISO 19109 standard for creating Application Schemes, relies on other standards from the ISO 19100 series, primarily in the 19103, 19107, 19108 and 19110. ISO 19103 standard specifies the use of Unified Modeling Language (UML) in geographic information modeling. ISO 19107 standard provides a conceptual scheme for describing and manipulating features of spatial objects. The standard operations for access, query, management, processing and sharing spatial data are defined during the modeling. Standardization in this area is the basis for other geographic standards. Conclusion Spatial data modeling is given greater importance. High costs of collecting and processing spatial data require special attention in all phases of design and implementation of geographic information systems. Therefore, it is necessary to comply with the current international ISO standards in modeling spatial data for real estate cadastre. The paper describes possibilities of application of relevant standards from ISO 19100 in modeling spatial data for real estate cadastre.



*** (2005) ISO 19103:2005 Geographic information: Conceptual schema language. http://www. iso. org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail. htm?csnumber=37800
*** (2003) ISO 19107:2003 Geographic information: Spatial schema. http://www. iso. org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.?R? htm?csnumber=26012
*** (2002) ISO 19108:2002 Geographic information: Temporal schema. ISO/TC211
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