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Vojnotehnički glasnik
2011, vol. 59, br. 3, str. 29-44
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: naučni članak
doi:10.5937/vojtehg1103029S


Hidrometalurgija pri visokim pritiscima, nova šansa za procese koji ne zagađuju životnu sredinu
IME Process Metallurgy and Metal Recycling, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

e-adresa: sstopic@ime-aachen.de

Sažetak

Širok spektar hidrometalurških procesa obećava različite mogućnosti industrijske primene u nameri da poboljša zaštitu životne sredine u tradicionalnoj proizvodnji metala ili da zameni pirometalurške procese, kod kojih su emisije gasova i visok sadržaj formiranih metala (As, Cr, Pb) postale nedopustive. Glavna prednost hidrometalurgije pri visokim pritiscima je kinetika procesa, brzo rastvaranje metala i povećana selektivnost prevođenja osnovnih metala u rastvor u odnosu na železo i druge prateće metale. Početkom prošlog veka, nezavisno jedan od drugog, Ipatieff i Bayer u Sankt Peterburgu izvodili su početne aktivnosti vezane za hidrometalurške operacije (rastvaranje, precipitacija, dobijanje metala). Postepeno industrijska primena započela je vezano za metalurgiju aluminijuma i nikla. Dodatno za nikal i aluminijum, luženje pri visokim pritiscima iz ruda i sekundarnih sirovina je uspostavljeno za širok spektar drugih metala (zlato, cink, molibden, germanijum). Luženje pri visokim pritiscima u kombinaciji sa drugim metalurškim operacijama (cementacija, precipitacija, solvent ekstrakcija i dobijanje metala elektrolizom) obezbeđuje odgovarajuću tehnologiju vraćanja metala u industrijski proces, čuvajući energiju i resurse, i čineći životnu sredinu još čistijom. Čini se da bi u budućnosti hidrometalurgija pri visokim pritiscima mogla biti veoma važan ključ za bolje i čistije procese u proizvodnji metala.

Ključne reči

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