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Inovacije u nastavi - časopis za savremenu nastavu
2015, vol. 28, br. 3, str. 15-35
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni članak
doi:10.5937/inovacije1503015B


Strukturalno kooperativno učenje kao sredstvo unapređenja prosečnih postignuća učenika prilikom učenja razlomaka iz matematike
aUniversité de Genève, Switzerland
bUniversité Clermont Auvergne, France
cUniversité de Genève & Université de Lausanne, Switzerland
dUniversité Clermont Auvergne & Institut Universitaire de France, France

e-adresa: celine.buchs@unige.ch

Sažetak

U osnovnoj školi učenje razlomaka je najvažnija oblast u nastavi matematike. Usavršavanje osnovnih procedura koje se tiču razlomaka predstavlja teškoću za mnoge učenike. Cilj ovog istraživanja je da se predstavi strukturalno kooperativno učenje kao sredstvo koje može da unapredi učenje učenika, a ovo se posebno odnosi na prosečne đake. U prethodnom istraživanju utvrđeno je da heterogene grupe (u kojima su učenici koji postižu mali, prosečan i veliki uspeh) mogu da budu štetne za učenike koji imaju prosečna postignuća, jer su oni isključeni iz odnosa nastavnika i učenika koji imaju loša ili dobra postignuća. Ovo istraživanje predlaže da se strukturiše interakcija radi poboljšanja postignuća prosečnih učenika u heterogenim grupama. Prilikom ovog istraživanja, sto osam učenika petog razreda radilo je zajedno u heterogenim trijadama koje su sačinjene prema rezultatima na inicijalnom testu (jedan učenik sa niskim nivoom postignuća, jedan sa srednjim i jedan sa visokim). Trijade su nasumično bile izložene niskostrukturisanim i visokostrukturisanim uslovima kooperativnog učenja. U svim trijadama učenicima je bilo naloženo da rade zajedno, vodeći računa o svom učenju i učenju svojih partnera. Matematički zadatak je uključio tri veštine: 1) razumevanje razlomačkog rezonovanja (sabiranje celog broja i razlomka, sabiranje razlomaka, pisanje razlomaka); 2) shvatanje ekvivalencije pisanja razlike; i 3) sposobnost korišćenja adekvatnog vokabulara. Da bi se radilo na poimanju razlomaka, predložili smo tipične vežbe koje se koriste u nacionalnom kurikulumu. Trijade su morale da izraze dužinu jednog segmenta, koristeći tri lenjira sa različitim podjedinicama i poštujući tri matematičke veštine koje se odnose na razlomke. Standardno merenje je bilo zagarantovano različitim podjedinicama pod imenom 'tri lenjira'. Učenici su morali da napišu dužinu segmenta koristeći što je moguće više izraza, uz adekvatan rečnik. Takođe, morali su i da provere da li su svi izrazi bili ekvivalentni. Od njih se zahtevalo da koriste lenjire da bi izmerili segment. Tri socijalne odgovornosti su takođe obuhvaćene: proveravanje da li su svi razumeli, potvrđivanje da se svi slažu oko zajedničkog odgovora i obaveštavanje o zajedničkom odgovoru. Učenici su izveštavali o zajedničkom odgovoru na grupnom listu (pozitivan cilj i nezavisnost). Bili su zamoljeni dapodstaknu jedni druge i da objasne rezonovanje (konstruktivna interakcija). Takođe, bilo im je rečeno da će raditi individualni test posle rada u grupi (individualna odgovornost). Ova koopertivna uputstva su data u oba slučaja. U uslovima niske strukturisanosti materijal je podeljen svim učenicima (to jest svaki učenik je imao tri različita lenjira). Učenici su morali da primene tri matematičke veštine (objašnjavanje rezonovanja, proveravanje ekvivalentnosti izraza i korišćenje adekvatnog rečnika). Morali su da prodiskutuju o odgovorima u trijadama koristeći sve veštine i lenjire; morali su da budu sigurni da su svi razumeli i da onda saopšte zajedničke odgovore. Organizovali su rad u grupi kako god su želeli. Polazi se od premise da učenici koji imaju prosečna postignuća mogu da budu manje aktivni u heterogenoj grupi i da preuzimanje aktivne uloge prilikom objašnjavanja predstavlja glavni element u matematici i veoma veliki strukturalno-kooperativni uslov za učenje koji ima za cilj da svi učenici u timu budu uključeni u matematičke diskusije i grupne odluke. Uz to, uveli smo distribuciju materijala, komplementarnu ekspertizu i menjanje odgovornih učenika tokom vežbe. U uslovima visoke strukturisanosti, materijali su bili podeljeni među učenicima u svakoj trijadi (to jest jedan lenjir po osobi) i svako bi postao ekspert za taj lenjir pre nego što objasni stečene veštine vršnjacima u određenim trijadama. Posebno smo napravili listu odgovornosti koje su se bazirale na ciljnim matematičkim veštinama i ciljnim socijalnim odgovornostima i predložili im da učenici naizmenično vrše dužnosti tokom vežbe. Ova procedura je predložena da bi se ojačala individualna odgovornost i pozitivna međuzavisnost. Posle vežbe u trijadama procenjivano je individualno razumevanje i onda su učenici raspravljali o individualnim završnim zadacima sa razlomcima. Opservacijom suobuhvaćeni učenici (to jest nivo 1) koji su bili u trijadama (to jest nivo 2) i oni koji su bili u učionicama (to jest nivo 3). Rezultati su pokazali da visoko strukturisano kooperativno učenje daje primat razumevanju zadatog zadatka, naročito za učenike prosečnih sposobnosti. Štaviše, učenici na svim nivoima su napredovali od inicijalnog testa do završnog testa. Zapravo, učenici sa malim i velikim postignućima su podjednako napredovali kod oba uslova, dok su prosečni napredovali više kod visoko strukturisanih uslova. Kada se uzmu zajedno, ovi rezultati potvrđuju da više strukturisani (u odnosu na manje) bivaju efektniji za prosečne učenike nego za one koji postižu gore ili bolje rezultate od prosečnih, i koji mogu da imaju koristi od saradnje bez obzira na strukturni nivo. Još jedna važna činjenica dobijena ovom studijom je da nivo strukture nema efekta na razumevanje ili na napredovanje učenika sa malim i velikim postignućima. Ovi nalazi govore da struktura koja podrazumeva da svi učenici budu socijalno i kognitivno uključeni tokom grupnog rada predstavlja krucijalnu komponentu koja omogućava učenicima prosečnih postignuća da imaju koristi od saradnje. Naša studija predlaže pedagoški kooperativni metod učenja koji može da se koristi u učionici da bi se poboljšala organizacija socijalne interakcije u heterogenim grupama i da bi se podržalo razumevanje i učenje svih učenika koji učestvuju u grupama. PR This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation under Grant CRSII1_14172 and the French University Institute and the Region Auvergne.

Ključne reči

kooperativno učenje; struktura; učenje razlomaka; učenici prosečnog postignuća; matematika

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