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Acta stomatologica Naissi
2013, vol. 29, br. 68, str. 1315-1323
jezik rada: srpski, engleski
vrsta rada: članak
doi:10.5937/asn1368315O
Diferencijalno-dijagnostičke i terapijske karakteristike oralne kandidijaze
aUniverzitet u Nišu, Medicinski fakultet, Stomatološka klinika
bUniverzitet u Nišu, Medicinski fakultet

e-adresa: dr.rada@yahoo.com

Sažetak

Oralna kandidijaza je česta oportunistička infekcija u usnoj duplji izazvana prekomernim razmnožavanjem Candide specijes (najčešće Candida albicans). Kod 20-50% zdravih osoba Candida albicans je deo normalne flore usne duplje. Incidencija ovog oboljenja varira u zavisnosti od starosti pacijenta i predisponirajućih faktora (poremećaj funkcije pljuvačnih žlezdi - oralna suvoća, loša oralna higijena, nošenje zubnih proteza, dugotrajna upotreba lekova, ishrana zasnovana pretežno na ugljenim hidratima, pušenje, diabetes mellitus, Kušingov sindrom, maligna oboljenja, imunosupresivna stanja). Kod 2/3 bolesnika sa AIDSom oralna kandidijaza predstavlja rani znak oboljenja. Klinički se oralna kandidijaza manifestuje u obliku akutne (pseudomembranozna i atrofična kandidijaza) i hronične (atrofična, nodularna i mukokutealna kandidijaza) forme. Diferencijalno-dijagnostički kandidijaza se ubraja u bele lezije, pa je treba razlikovati od retikularne forme lihen planusa, leukoplakije, hemijskih oštećenja, mehaničkih oštećenja (kao što je grickanje oralne sluzokože), belog sunđerastog nevusa, drugog stadijuma luesa, difterije i dr. Nakon uzimanja istorije bolesti, identifikuju se i koriguju provocirajući faktori. Posle kliničkog pregleda i laboratorijske identifikacije izazivača oboljenja, primenjuju se adekvatni antifungalni lekovi: lokalno (rastvor Nistatina, Daktanol gel) ili sistemski (Flukonazol, Ketokonazol, Itrakonazol, Amfotericin B i dr.), dobra oralna higijena i sanacija zuba. Kod određenih rizičnih grupa pacijenata primenjuje se profilaksa antifungalnim lekovima koji smanjuju incidenciju i težinu oboljenja. U najvećem broju obolelih prognoza oboljenja je dobra.

Ključne reči

oralna kandidijaza; diferencijalna dijagnoza; terapija

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