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Pravni zapisi
2016, vol. 7, br. 1, str. 20-54
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
doi:10.5937/pravzap0-11350


Javno razmatranje u funkciji prevazilaženja demokratskog deficita, javna rasprava i razgraničenje od javnog slušanja
Univerzitet Union, Beograd, Pravni fakultet

e-adresa: slobodan.vukadinovic@pravnifakultet.rs

Sažetak

U radu se, najpre, analiziraju oblici neposredne demokratije od istorijskih, u antičkoj Atini, do savremenih oblika, u Švajcarskoj i SAD. Ukazujući na slabosti savremene predstavničke demokratije koja dominira današnjicom, autor istražuje oblike participacije građana - od učešća do uticaja - koji pomažu u prevazilaženju demokratskog deficita u praksi. Pored tradicionalnih, analiziraju se i inovativni mehanizmi (od neformalnih do formalnih, od individualnih do kolektivnih) koji omogućavaju ne samo da se građani izjašnjavaju biranjem opcije za ili protiv već da se aktivno uključe i iznose sopstvena mišljenja, stavove, iskustva i argumente - da učestvuju u javnom razmatranju. Ukazuje se na pozitivne efekte i prednosti neposrednog uključivanja građana u proces donošenja odluka i kreiranja javnih politika kroz doprinos korigovanju, stabilizovanju i konsolidovanju savremene predstavničke demokratije. Nakon razmatranja oblika neposrednog učešća građana u uporednom pravu, autor se fokusira na mehanizme u srpskom društvu i identifikuje one koji se u Srbiji najčešće primenjuju. U nastavku rada se bavi analizom pravnog okvira javne rasprave u Srbiji i okruženju. Postavljajući pitanje razgraničenja javnog slušanja od javne rasprave, autor identifikuje 13 originalnih kriterijuma razgraničenja, koji međusobno razlikuju ova dva instituta. Ukazujući na mogućnosti primene i drugih inovativnih mehanizama građanske participacije, koji su svoju primenu potvrdili u praksi drugih država, autor daje konkretne preporuke i tri moguća pravna puta za unapređenje javnog razmatranja i zaključuje da bi snagom argumentovanog javnog razmatranja i učešćem većeg broja građana i svih sektora društva, kao i uključivanjem njihovih argumenata u konačne tekstove zakona i propisa, sadašnja vladavina političkih stranaka mogla da dovede do vladavine zdravog razuma, odnosno da se od države partija dođe do države razuma.

Ključne reči

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