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Arhiv za farmaciju
2010, vol. 60, br. 2, str. 226-240
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: stručni članak
objavljeno: 22/06/2010
Hormonima slični sastojci biljaka
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Farmaceutski fakultet

Sažetak

Biljke nisu sposobne da sintetišu supstance koje su hemijski identične humanim i animalnim hormonima. Ipak, sasvim je sigurno da biljke sadrže supstance koje mogu da utiču na hormonsku homeostazu u živim organizmima. Neki sastojci biljaka su hemijski veoma slični hormonima pa se smatralo da, do određene granice, mogu ispoljiti i hormonsku aktivnost; ovakve tvrdnje treba i dokazati. Zatim, pojedini sastojci biljaka mogu uticati na koncentraciju hormona, najčešće, preko uticaja na metaboličke puteve i enzime koji ih usmeravaju. Dalje, sastojci biljaka mogu uticati na hormonsku aktivnost, a da ne utiču na aktivnost žlezda sa unutrašnjim lučenjem i/ili da ne dovode do promene koncentracije hormona u krvi; npr. gosipol sprečava spermatogenezu, a da pri tom ne utiče na ostale endokrine funkcije testisa. Ipak, najvažnija je činjenica da biljke predstavljaju sirovinu za ekstrakciju supstanci koje će biti prevedene u hormone ili derivate hormona. Transformacija jedinjenja dobijenih iz biljaka može biti izvedena samo u laboratorijskim (industrijskim) uslovima i ne može se obaviti u ljudskom organizmu. Sa ovog stanovišta, najvažnija su prirodna steroidna jedinjenja. Diosgenin iz krtole Dioscorea vrsta je najvažnije prirodno jedinjenje za polusintezu steroidnih seksualnih hormona i kortizona. Treba spomenuti fitohormone; nemaju hemijsku strukturu sličnu hormonima, ali mogu ispoljavati neke hormonske efekte. U okviru ovakve grupe, najpoznatiji su fitoestrogeni (koumestana, izoflavona, flavonoida, stilbena i lignana). Svakodnevno se koriste u obliku lekova za samolečenje i dijetetskih suplemenatar za prevenciju nastanka i terapiju blažih oblika simptoma menopauze. Fitoestrogeni se mogu specifično vezati za α i/ili β estrogene receptore. Najbolje proučeni izoflavoni i njihova terapijska primena; potvrđen je pozitivan efekat na odnos u okviru frakcija lipida u serumu, što se može povezati sa manjom incidencom kardiovaskularnih problema. Najčešće se koriste genistein i daidzein iz soje (Glycine max) i crvene deteline (Trifolium pratense). Dnevna doza ovih izoflavona, za koju je potvrđena klinička efikasnost, iznosi 40-160 mg.

Ključne reči

prirodni hormoni; fitohormoni; bio-identični hormoni; diosgenin; fitoestrogen

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