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Medicinski pregled
2016, vol. 69, br. 9-10, str. 267-273
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: originalan članak
doi:10.2298/MPNS1610267K


Antropometrijske karakteristike i funkcionalne sposobnosti vrhunskih veslača i rukometaša
aUniversity of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology
bDepartment of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Clinical Center of Vojvodina, Novi Sad
cUniversity of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomy
dUniverzitet u Novom Sadu, Medicinski fakultet

e-adresa: dea.karaba-jakovljevic@mf.uns.ac.rs

Sažetak

Uvod. Analiza antropometrijskog i anaerobnog profila vrhunskih sportista je od fundamentalnog značaja za procenu njihovih funkcionalnih sposobnosti. Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je evaluacija antropometrijskih parametara, telesne kompozicije i anaerobnih sposobnosti kod vrhunskih rukometaša i veslača i njihovo poređenje u zavisnosti od specifičnih zahteva sporta. Materijal i metode. Istraživanje je sprovedeno u grupi od 41 vrhunskog sportiste: 20 rukometaša starosti 23,7 ± 3,72 godina i 21 veslača starosti 19,7 ± 2,84 godina. Svim ispitanicima su izmereni antropometrijski parametri (telesna masa, telesna visina, debljine kožnih nabora i telesni dijametri), a masna masa procenjena je metodom bioelektrične impedancije. Za analizu anaerobnih sposobnosti ispitanika primenjen je Vingejt (Wingate) anaerobni test kojim se dobijaju sledeći parametri: anaerobna snaga, eksplozivna snaga i anaerobni kapacitet. Rezultati. Statistički značajne razlike zabeležene su u vrednostima obima nadlaktice, struka i kukova i grudi, kao i u vrednostima supraspinalnog i kožnog nabora potkolenice. Kod veslača su utvrđene više vrednosti masne mase tela (13,2 ± 3,76 vs. 10,7 ± 3,76%), ali niži indeks telesne mase (22 ± 1,92 vs. 25,7 ± 2,31 kg/m2) u poređenju sa rukometašima. Poredeći rezultate Vingejt testa, statistički značajno veće vrednosti apsolutne anaerobne snage (786 ± 127 vs. 691 ± 140 W) i apsolutne eksplozivne snage zabeležene su kod rukometaša (118 ± 26,3 vs. 105 ± 27,8 W/s), dok su veslači ostvarili veće vrednosti relativnog anaerobnog kapaciteta (192 ± 31,2 vs. 177 ± 20,8 J/kg). Zaključak. Specifična analiza telesne kompozicije i antropometrijska analiza dopunjuju fiziološki profil vrhunskih sportista. Analizirajući anaerobne sposobnosti, rukometaši poseduju izraženiju alaktatnu anaerobnu i eksplozivnu snagu u poređenju sa veslačima, kod kojih anaerobna izdržljivost i specifični trening najviše doprinose utrošku dominantnog metaboličkog supstrata tokom trke.

Ključne reči

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