Metrika članka

  • citati u SCindeksu: 0
  • citati u CrossRef-u:0
  • citati u Google Scholaru:[=>]
  • posete u poslednjih 30 dana:3
  • preuzimanja u poslednjih 30 dana:0
članak: 1 od 1  
Vojnosanitetski pregled
2008, vol. 65, br. 8, str. 613-618
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: originalan članak
objavljeno: 06/10/2008
doi: 10.2298/VSP0808613D
Uticaj profesionalne ekspozicije malim dozama jonizujućeg zračenja na aktivnost superoksid dismutaze i nivo glutationa u plazmi
aVojnomedicinska akademija, Institut za medicinu rada, Beograd
bUniverzitet u Novom Sadu, Fakultet tehničkih nauka
cMilos Clinic, Belgrade


(ne postoji na srpskom)
Background/Aim. During exposure to low-level doses (LLD) of ionizing radiation (IR), the most of harmful effects are produced indirectly, through radiolysis of water and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD): manganese SOD (MnSOD) and copper-zinc SOD (CuZnSOD), as well as glutathione (GSH), are the most important intracellular antioxidants in the metabolism of ROS. Overproduction of ROS challenges antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this study was to examine if previous exposure to low doses of IR induces adaptive response by means of stimulation of intracellular antioxidant defense system. Methods. We investigated a group of medical workers occupationally exposed to IR (n = 44), 29 male and 15 female. The controls (n = 33) consisted of medical workers not exposed to IR, 23 male and 10 female. The examinees from both groups worked in the same environment and matched in crucial characteristics. All measurements were performed by a calibrated thermoluminiscent dosimeter type CaF2:Mn. SOD activity and GSH content were measured spectrophotometrically in the plasma of both groups of medical workers. Half of each blood sample was irradiated by 2Gy of γ radiation, dose-rate 0.45 Gy/min, and the distance from the source of 74 cm. Results. The dosimetry results indicate that occupational doses were very low. Our results confirmed significantly higher SOD activity in the exposed vs. unexposed workers (p < 0.00006). SOD activity after irradiation of blood samples failed to show a significant difference between the exposed workers and the controls (p = 0.905), even the difference in each group before and after the irradiation was significant. In blood samples of the exposed workers expression of enzymes after the irradiation, was not as high as in the controls, or even in the case of the exposed in nuclear medicine personnel, SOD activity was decreased. There were no significant differences in the content of GSH between the groups. Conclusion. Our results pointed out that occupational exposure to low doses of IR compromised mitochondrial function. During occupational exposure, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was increased as a protection against the increased production of ROS. After high-dose irradiation dysfunction of mitochondrial system was noticed, suggesting the break-down of antioxidant defense and failure of an adaptive response. Therefore, the "chronic oxidative stress" might reduce antioxidant defense in the case of accidental exposure to high doses of IR. It could indirectly increase the incidence of some other "free radicals' diseases" in occupationally exposed personnel.

Ključne reči


Altieri, D.C. (2001) The molecular basis and potential role of survivin in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Trends Mol Med, 7(12): 542-7
Barbagallo, M., Dominguez, L.J., Tagliamonte, M.R., Resnick, L.M., Paolisso, G. (1999) Effects of glutathione on red blood cell intracellular magnesium: Relation to glucose metabolism. Hypertension, 34(1): 76-82
Barcellos-Hoff, M.H. (1998) How do tissues respond to damage at the cellular level? The role of cytokines in irradiated tissues. Radiat Res, 150(5 Suppl): S109-20
Berrington, A., Darby, S.C., Weiss, H.A., Doll, R. (2001) 100 years of observation on British radiologists: Mortality from cancer and other causes 1897-1997. Br J Radiol, 74(882): 507-19
Boothman, D.A., Reichrath, J. (2005) New basic science initiatives for improved understanding of radiation-induced multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). BJR Suppl, 27, str. 157-60
Cardis, E., Vrijheid, M., Blettner, M., Gilbert, E., Hakama, M., Hill, C., Howe, G., Kaldor, J., Muirhead, C.R., i dr. (2005) Risk of cancer after low doses of ionising radiation: Retrospective cohort study in 15 countries. BMJ, 331(7508): 77
Dainiak, N. (1997) Mechanisms of radiation injury: Impact of molecular medicine. Stem Cells, 15 Suppl 2: 1-5
Dainiak, N., Tan, B.J. (1995) Utility of biological membranes as indicators for radiation exposure: Alterations in membrane structure and function over time. Stem Cells, 13 Suppl 1: 142-52
Doll, R. (1997) Effects of small doses of ionizing radiation on human health. u: British Nuclear Energy Society [ur.] Health Effects Of Low Dose Radiation − Challenge of 21st Century, Conference organized by the British Nuclear Energy Society; May 11−14; Stratford-upon-Avon, Proceedings, London: BNES (British Nuclear Energy Society), str. 1−8
Doll, R. (2005) Mortality of british radiologists: A lecture note. J Radiat Res (Tokyo), 46(1): 123-9
Dowd, S.B., Tilson, E.R. (1999) Practical radiation protection and applied radiobiology. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company
Dusinska, M., Ficek, A., Horska, A., Raslova, K., Petrovska, H., Vallova, B., i dr. (2001) Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms influence the level of oxidative DNA damage and antioxidant protection in humans. Mutat Res, 482(1-2): 47-55
Đurović, B., Selaković, V.M., Spasić-Jokić, V.M. (2004) Does occupational exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation induce cell membrane damage?. Archive of Oncology, vol. 12, br. 4, str. 197-199
Epperly, M.W., Gretton, J.E., Sikora, C.A., Jefferson, M., Bernarding, M., Nie, S., Greenberger, J.S. (2003) Mitochondrial localization of superoxide dismutase is required for decreasing radiation-induced cellular damage. Radiat Res, 160(5): 568-78
Feinendegen, E.L. (2005) Significance of basic and clinical research in radiation medicine: Challenges for the future. BJR, Suppl, 27: 185- 95
Goodhead, D.T. (1988) Spatial and temporal distribution of energy. Health Phys, 55(2): 231-40
Grudzinski, I.P., Frankiewicz-Jozko, A., Gajewska, J., Szczypka, M., Szymanski, A. (2000) Effects of whole-body γ-lrradiation on lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant enzymes in the liver of n-nitrosodiethylaminetreated mice. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 9(5): 385−90
Guo, G., Yan-Sanders, Y., Lyn-Cook, B.D., Wang, T., Tamae, D., Ogi, J., Khaletskiy, A., Li, Z., Weydert, C., Longmate, J.A., Huang, T., Spitz, D.R., Oberley, L.W., Li, J.J. (2003) Manganese superoxide dismutase-mediated gene expression in radiation-induced adaptive responses. Mol Cell Biol, 23(7): 2362-78
Halliwell, B. (1994) Free radicals, antioxidants, and human disease: Curiosity, cause, or consequence?. Lancet, 344(8924): 721-4
Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J.M.C. (1985) Free radicals in biology and medicine. Oxford, itd: Clarendon Press
Hendee, W.R. (1996) Health effects of exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. London: Institute of Physics Publishing
Huang, Z.Z., Chen, C., Zeng, Z., Yang, H., Oh, J., Chen, L., Lu, S.C. (2001) Mechanism and significance of increased glutathione level in human hepatocellular carcinoma and liver regeneration. FASEB J, 15(1): 19-21
Lenton, K.J., Greenstock, C.L. (1999) Ability of human plasma to protect against ionising radiation is inversely correlated with age. Mech Ageing Dev, 107(1): 15-20
Lombardi, M.H. (1999) Radiation safety in nuclear medicine. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press
Lowry, O.H., Passonneau, J.V. (1974) A flexible system of enzymatic analysis. New York-San Diego: Academic Press
Marini, M., Frabetti, F., Musiani, D., Franceschi, C. (1996) Oxygen radicals induce stress proteins and tolerance to oxidative stress in human lymphocytes. Int J Radiat Biol, 70(3): 337-50
Marnett, L.J. (1999) Lipid peroxidation-DNA damage by malondialdehyde. Mutat Res, 424(1-2): 83-95
Mothersill, C., Moriarty, M.J., Seymour, C.B. (2005) Bystander and other delayed effects and multi-organ involvement and failure following high dose exposure to ionising radiation. BJR, Suppl; 27: 128-31
Motoori, S., Majima, H.J., Ebara, M., Kato, H., Hirai, F., Kakinuma, S., Yamaguchi, C., Ozawa, T., Nagano, T., Tsujii, H., Saisho, H. (2001) Overexpression of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase protects against radiation-induced cell death in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HLE. Cancer Res, 61(14): 5382-8
Nias, A.H.W. (1998) An introduction to radiobiology. London: John Wiley and Sons
Peng, T.X., Moya, A., Ayala, F.J. (1986) Irradiation-resistance conferred by superoxide dismutase: Possible adaptive role of a natural polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 83(3): 684-7
Petkau, A. (1972) Effect of 22 Na+ on a phospholipid membrane. Health Phys, 22(3): 239-44
Prasad, K.N. (2005) Rationale for using multiple antioxidants in protecting humans against low doses of ionizing radiation. Br J Radiol, 78(930): 485-92
Prasad, N.K. (1997) Handbook of radiobiology. New York: CRC Press
Reinila, M., MacDonald, E., Salem, N., Linnoila, M., Trams, E.G. (1982) Standardized method for the determination of human erythrocyte membrane adenosine triphosphatases. Anal Biochem, 124(1): 19-26
Richter, C., Kass, G.E. (1991) Oxidative stress in mitochondria: Its relationship to cellular Ca2+ homeostasis, cell death, proliferation, and differentiation. Chem Biol Interact, 77(1): 1-23
Riley, P.A. (1994) Free radicals in biology: Oxidative stress and the effects of ionizing radiation. Int J Radiat Biol, 65(1): 27-33
Sasaki, M.S. (1996) Radioadaptive response: An implication for the biological consequences of low dose-rate exposure to radiations. Mutat Res, 358(2): 207-13
Selaković, V. (2001) Concentrations alterations of soluble adhesive molecules, S-100 proteins and neuron-specific endolase in cerebral liquid and plasma of patients in an acute stage of cerebral ischemic disease. Belgrade: Military Medical Academy, dissertation
Shore, R.E. (1990) Occupational radiation studies: Status, problems, and prospects. Health Phys, 59(1): 63-8
Sies, H. (1985) Oxidative stress. New York-San Diego, itd: Academic Press
Simović, M. (1993) Significance of antioxidative defense of brain tissue in combined radiation injury survival. Belgrade: Military Medical Academy, dissertation
Smith, H. (1997) Cellular adaptive response: Its significance in living organisms. u: Health Effects Of Low Dose Radiation: Challenge of 21 st Century, Conference, May 11−14; Stratford-upon-Avon, UK, Proceedings, London: British Nuclear Energy Society, p. 175−91
Smith, P.G., Doll, R. (1981) Mortality from cancer and all causes among British radiologists. Br J Radiol, 54(639): 187-94
Statkiewicz-Sherer, M.A., Visconti, P.J., Russel, R.E. (1998) Radiation protection in medical radiography-Missouri. St. Luis: Mosby, 3th ed
Stewart, A. (1973) The carcinogenic effects of low level radiation: A re-appraisal of epidemiologists methods and observations. Health Phys, 24(2): 223-40
Stewart, A.M., Kneale, G.W. (1996) Relations between age at occupational exposure to ionising radiation and cancer risk. Occup Environ Med, 53(4): 225-230
Sun, M., Zigman, S. (1978) An improved spectrophotometric assay for superoxide dismutase based on epinephrine autoxidation. Anal Biochem, 90(1): 81-9
Trosko, J.E., Inoue, T. (1997) Oxidative stress, signal transduction, and intercellular communication in radiation carcinogenesis. Stem Cells, 15 Suppl 2: 59-67
Tuschl, H., Steger, F., Kovac, R. (1995) Occupational exposure and its effect on some immune parameters. Health Phys, 68(1): 59-66
Wing, S., Richardson, D.B. (2005) Age at exposure to ionising radiation and cancer mortality among Hanford workers: Follow up through 1994. Occup Environ Med, 62(7): 465-72
Yalow, R.S. (1994) Concerns with low-level ionizing radiation. Mayo Clin Proc, 69(5): 436-40
Yoon, S.J., Koh, Y.H., Floyd, R.A., Park, J.W. (2000) Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase enhances DNA damage and mutagenicity induced by cysteine/iron. Mutat Res, 448(1): 97-104
Zaider, M., Bardash, M., Fung, A. (1994) Molecular damage induced directly and indirectly by ionizing radiation in DNA. Int J Radiat Biol, 66(5): 459-65
Zwingmann, I.H., Welle, I.J., van Herwijnen, M., Engelen, J.J., Schilderman, P.A., Smid, T., Kleinjans, J.C. (1998) Oxidative DNA damage and cytogenetic effects in flight engineers exposed to cosmic radiation. Environ Mol Mutagen, 32(2): 121-9