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Veterinarski glasnik
2012, vol. 66, br. 3-4, str. 273-283
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
doi:10.2298/VETGL1204273S


Oksidativni stres
aUniverzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet veterinarske medicine
bUniverzitet u Nišu, Prirodno-matematički fakultet

Projekat

Aberacije ćelijskog ciklusa i uticaj oksidativnog stresa na neurodegenerativne procese i malignu transformaciju ćelije (MPNTR - 173034)
Antioksidativna zaštita i potencijali za diferencijaciju i regeneraciju mezenhimalnih matičnih ćelija iz različitih tkiva tokom procesa starenja (MPNTR - 175061)
Organizovanje održive proizvodnje organskog uzgoja jagnjadi kao podrška ruralnog razvoja (MPNTR - 31085)

Sažetak

Neprekidna potreba za kiseonikom je kontradiktorna sa činjenicom da je on toksičan po sisare. Naime, njegova jednovalentna redukcija može imati za posledicu proizvodnju kratkoživećih, hemijski vrlo aktivnih, slobodnih radikala i nekih neradikalskih agenasa (azot-oksida, superoksid anjon-radikala, hidroksilnog radikala, peroksilnog radikala, singletnog kiseonika, peroksinitrita, vodonik-peroksida, hipohloraste kiseline i dr.). Neosporno je da oni imaju brojne poželjne uloge, ali kada im se proizvodnja pojača toliko da organizam ne može svojim antioksidansima (superoksid dismutaza, glutation peroksidaza, katalaza, transferin, ceruloplazmin, redukovani glutation i sl.) da ih ukloni, razvija se serija poremećaja koji se jednim imenom nazivaju 'oksidativni stres'. Reaktivne kiseonične vrste koje karakterišu oksidativni stres su sposobne da napadnu sve glavne klase bioloških makromolekula, odnosno proteine, DNK i RNK molekule, a naročito lipide. Pod uticajem slobodnih radikala dolazi do peroksidacije lipida ćelijskih membrana, oksidativnih oštećenja DNK i RNK molekula, razvoja genetskih mutacija, fragmentacije i promene funkcije najrazličitijih proteinskih molekula. Sve to ima za posledicu: narušavanje propustljivosti ćelijskih membrana, poremećaja ćelijske signalizacije i homeostaze jona, smanjenja ili gubitka funkcija oštećenih proteina i sl. Zato se slobodni radikali, koji se oslobađaju tokom oksidativnog stresa, smatraju patogenim agensima mnogih bolesti i starenja. Koja vrsta oštećenja će se desiti i kada, zavisi od prirode slobodnih radikala, mesta delovanja i njihovog izvora.

Ključne reči

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