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Inovacije u nastavi - časopis za savremenu nastavu
2012, vol. 25, br. 1, str. 5-21
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak

Standardi u obrazovanju kao način podizanja kvaliteta obrazovanja
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Filozofski fakultet

e-adresa: apesikan@gmail.com

Projekat

Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije (MPNTR - 179018)

Sažetak

Počelo se sa izradom različitih standarda u obrazovanju u Srbiji, pa smo smatrali da je izuzetno važno proučiti filozofiju koja leži iza 'Pokreta Standardi' i dosadašnja iskustva sa njegovom primenom u obrazovanju. U radu se opisuje kontekst nastanka reforme obrazovanja bazirane na standardima u SAD, koja se odatle proširila na veliki deo sveta. U radu razmatramo koncepciju reforme i efekte njene primene u praksi. Glavni nalazi analize su da je neophodno razlikovati, s jedne strane, pojam standard, princip visokih i inkluzivnih obrazovnih standarda i, s druge, upotrebu standarda u jednom konkretnom kontekstu obrazovne reforme. Njihovo nerazlikovanje vodi pogrešnim koracima u obrazovnoj politici. Stavovi i osećanja protiv 'Pokreta Standardi' često su se nekritički generalizovali i na odnos prema svim standardima i prema samom pojmu standarda u obrazovanju. Mi pravimo razliku između standarda-kao-cilja i standarda-kao-sredstva u obrazovanju. Navodimo argumente za uvođenje standarda-kao-sredstva i ukazujemo na to kako oni mogu podizati kvalitet obrazovanja. Suština procene učeničkog rada trebalo bi da bude tačna ocena njihovog postignuća u odnosu na spoljni kriterijum, a ne uzajamno poređenje učenika i kompeticija. Standardi- kao-sredstvo su alatka, instrument, a ne polazna tačka iz kojih se izvode centralne organizujuće ideje i ideologija određenog kurikuluma. U poslednjem delu rada analiziramo grupe problema u dosadašnjoj izradi i upotrebi standarda u Srbiji: neslaganje eksperata oko sadržaja standarda; probleme oko kvaliteta standarda; oko primene standarda (obučenost nastavnika, obezbeđivanje procedure za merenje ostvarenosti standarda); i obezbeđivanje povratne informacije nakon primene standarda i upotreba dobijenih nalaza u obrazovnoj politici zemlje. U Srbiji postoje nužni preduslovi za razvoj i primenu standarda-kao-sredstva, ali ne postoje još uvek jasni mehanizmi za praćenje i obezbeđivanje kvaliteta svih nužnih koraka na tom putu, niti dovoljna svest o skliskim i rizičnim tačkama i načinima kako da se preduprede pojedini problemi.

Ključne reči

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