članak: 1 od 1  
Aktuelnosti iz neurologije, psihijatrije i graničnih područja
2003, vol. 11, br. 2, str. 57-70
jezik rada: srpski
pregledni članak
Botulinski toksin u terapiji neuroloških bolesti
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet, Institut za neurologiju i psihijatriju za decu i omladinu

Sažetak

Botulinski toksin, koga izlučuje Clostridium botulinum tip A je protein molekularne težine od oko 140.000 D, koji ostvaruje svoj paralitički efekat brzom i ireverzibilnom blokadom neuromišićne transmisije. Ovu mogućnost je u terapijske svrhe prvi iskoristio Alan Scott, koji je počeo da ga upotrebljava u lečenju strabizma kod primata, a od 1981. godine i kod dece. Od tog vremena botulinski toksin se koristi u lečenju mnogih oftalmoloških, ali i neuroloških bolesti. Botulinski toksin je našao svoje mesto u terapiji spastičnosti, različitih formi distonije, hemifacijalnog spazma, hiperhidroze, glavobolje i drugih bolesti. Ciljevi lečenja spastičnosti podrazumevaju smanjenje bola i bolnih fleksionih ili ekstenzionih spazama, prevenciju razvoja kontraktura, poboljšanje pokretljivosti, olakšavanje dnevnih aktivnosti i lakše učešće u rehabilitaciji, uz olakšanje onima koji neguju bolesnika. U dečjoj cerebralnoj paralizi smanjenje spastičnosti doprinosi odlaganju hirurške intervencije do uzrasta u kome ona može biti efikasnija i ne zahteva ponavljanje. Injekcije botulinskog toksina u distoničke mišiće ublažava nevoljni pokret, zbog čega je preporučen kao terapija izbora u lečenju različitih formi distoničke diskinezije. Neželjena dejstva pri primeni botulinskog toksina su prolazna i prihvatljiva.

Ključne reči

botulinski toksin; neurološka oboljenja; terapija

Reference

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