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Lekovite sirovine
2001, br. 21, str. 17-29
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak

Bryophyta, potencijalne lekovite sirovine
aUniverzitet u Beogradu, Biološki fakultet, Institut za botaniku i botanička bašta "JEVREMOVAC"
bUniverzitet u Beogradu, Institut za biološka istraživanja 'Siniša Stanković', Beograd

Sažetak

Bryophyta (mahovine, jetrenjače i rožnjače) su druga po veličini grupa biljaka, odmah posle cvetnica, sa oko 28.000 vrsta širom sveta. Ipak, čak ni delom kao cvetnice, briofite se ne koriste u terapijske svrhe. Hemijski sastav sastojaka briofita je veoma slabo poznat, a podaci o tome su vrlo neobjedinjeni. Razlog tome je teška identifikacija briofita i mala količina jedne iste vrste koja je dostupna za obično vrlo fine analize. Briofite su veoma bogate terpenoidima, fenolima (flavonoidi i derivati bibenzila), glikozidima, masnim kiselinama, proteinima, ali i nekim drugim retkim aromatičnim jedinjenjima. Danas se briofite smatraju značajnim rezervoarima novih prirodnih produkata i sekundarnih jedinjenja od kojih mnoga imaju interesantnu biološku aktivnost. Biološka aktivnost briofita može se grubo predstaviti sledećim dejstvima: antimikrobno, antifungalno, citotoksično, antitumorsko, kardiotonično, alergeno, nadražujuće i tumor pospešujuće, insekticidno, moluscicidno i piscicidno. Neka jedinjenja briofita takodje štite biljke od insekata, regulišu rast biljaka, inhibiraju oslobadjanje superoksid anjon radikala ili vrše inaktivaciju radikala, inhibiraju aktivnost 5-lipoksigenaze, kalmodulina, hijaluronidaze i ciklooksigenaze. Poslednji podaci govore i o anti-HIV aktivnosti nekih jedinjenja iz briofita (neki bibenzili jetrenjača). U radu su izložena lekovita svojsta i hemijski sastav briofita.

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