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2017, vol. 43, br. 1-4, str. 39-47
Reverzibilne hidroelektrane smanjuju troškove proizvodnje i obezbeđuju čistu energiju vetra i sunca
aUniverzitet u Beogradu, Mašinski fakultet
bMississauga, Ontario, Canada
cUniversity of Toronto, Civil Engineering Department, Canada

e-adresaagajic@mas.bg.ac.rs
Ključne reči: reverzibilna hidroelektrana; obnovljiva energija; akumulacija
Sažetak
Pretvaranje električne energije u druge oblike energije i njeno skladištenje u periodima smanjene potrošnje ili raspoložive povećane proizvodnje, kao i proizvodnja električne energije u periodima povećane potražnje ili smanjene proizvodnje, jesu od krucijalnog značaja za stabilnost i efikasnost elektroenergetskog sistema. Ovaj zahtev je posebno izražen danas zbog ekspanzije uključivanja vetrogeneratora i solarnih elektrana u elektroenergetski sistem. Ovi obnovljivi izvori su inherentno promenljivi, kako u dnevnom periodu, tako i u periodima od nekoliko dana, nedelja ili meseci. Stoga je neophodno obezbediti zamenske kapacitete i postrojenja za akumulaciju energije. Različite tehnologija se mogu koristiti za konverziju i akumulaciju električne energije, ali jedina u potpunosti razvijena raspoloživa tehnologija velikog kapaciteta je bazirana na reverzibilnim hidroelektranama. U okviru ovog rada se razmatra potencijal reverzibilnih hidroelektrana za efikasno i ekonomski prihvatljivo skladištenje električne energije proizvedene u vetroelektranama, u solarnim elektranama, protočnim hidroelektranama i iz drugih obnovljivih izvora, kao iz konvencionalnih termoelektrana, uključujući i nuklearne elektrane. Gasnoturbinska postrojenja i gasni motori zagađuju okolinu i utiču na klimatske promene. Za realizaciju reverzibilnih hidroelektrana se koriste reke i jezera. Međutim, pored ovih rešenja sa korišćenjem prirodnih pogodnosti, pojavila su se nova rešenja, kao što je korišćenje mora kao donjeg rezervoara (Japan), ili predlozi da gornji rezervoar bude površinski, a donji podzemni, korišćenjem prirodnih kaviteta ispod tla. Analize pokazuju da je opravdano investirati u reverzibilne hidroelektrane. Primeri iz svetske prakse pokazuju da se rešenje sa podzemnom mašinskom halom može otplatiti za sedam do deset godina ili čak za pet godina pri ostvarivanju mogućeg maksimalnog prihoda. Reverzibilne hidroelektrane sa površinskim akumulacijama se mogu otplatiti čak za četiri do šest godina.
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O članku

jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
DOI: 10.5937/termoteh1704039G
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 13.07.2018.

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