Article metrics

  • citations in SCindeks: 0
  • citations in CrossRef:0
  • citations in Google Scholar:[=>]
  • visits in previous 30 days:21
  • full-text downloads in 30 days:11
article: 3 from 13  
Back back to result list
Fizička kultura
2018, vol. 72, iss. 1, pp. 29-36
article language: English, Serbian
document type: Original Scientific Paper
doi:10.5937/fizkul1801029M

Creative Commons License 4.0
Social support and physical activity level of elementary school students
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education

e-mail: zivanmilosevic991@gmail.com

Abstract

The aim of this research was to determine whether differences among elementary school students of both genders in levels of physical activity in relation to their individual perception of different social support domains are present. 165 fifth graders participated in this research (88 girls and 77 boys). Social Support Scale for Children, SSSC (Harter, 1985) which consists of four subscales: 1. social support of parents; 2. social support of peers; 3. social support of teachers; and 4. social support of close friends, was administered and used. Evaluation of the level of physical activity has been assessed via the questionnaire method which was based on self-evaluation and self-perception of levels of physical activity by applying the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Craig et al., 2003). Results of multiple regression analysis show that the system of prediction variables of specific domain of social support has a statistically significant influence on strenuous physical activity levels of boys. Social support of close friends has displayed itself as the absolute best predictor on their strenuous and total physical activity. Statistically significant influence of system of prediction variables on any type and level of physical activity hasn't been noticed among girls. By observing the influence of certain variables of social support social support from parents has the strongest influence on moderate level of physical activity among girls. is research paper contributes to the identification of factors which influence the participation level of students in physical activity programs. The goal of this research paper was to contribute to the development of fruitful strategies and interventions which will ensure motivation and enjoyment in physical activity participation.

Keywords

social influence; social perception; types of physical activity

References

Allender, S., Cowburn, G., Foster, C. (2006) Understanding participation in sport and physical activity among children and adults: a review of qualitative studies. Health Education Research, 21(6): 826-835
Anderssen, N., Wold, B. (1992) Parental and peer influences on leisure-time physical activity in young adolescents. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 63(4): 341-8
Armsden, G.C., Greenberg, M.T. (1987) The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16(5): 427-454
Beets, M. (2006) Social Support and Youth Physical Activity: The Role of Provider and Type. American Journal of Health Behavior, 30(3): 278-289
Belle, D. (1989) Gender deference’s in children's social networks and supports. in: Children's Social Networks and Social Supports, 136, 173
Bokhorst, C.L., Sumter, S.R., Westenberg, P. (2010) Social Support from Parents, Friends, Classmates, and Teachers in Children and Adolescents Aged 9 to 18 Years: Who Is Perceived as Most Supportive?. Social Development, 19(2): 417-426
Brustad, R.J. (1993) Who Will Go Out and Play? Parental and Psychological Influences on Children's Attraction to Physical Activity. Pediatric Exercise Science, 5(3): 210-223
Brustad, R.J. (1996) Attraction to Physical Activity in Urban Schoolchildren: Parental Socialization and Gender Influences. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 67(3): 316-323
Bryant, B.K. (1994) How does social support function in childhood. in: Social networks and social support in childhood and adolescence, 23-35
Craig, C.L., Marshall, A.L., Sjöström, M., Bauman, A.E., Booth, M.L., Ainsworth, B.E., Pratt, M., Ekelund, U., Yngve, A., Sallis, J.F., Oja, P. (2003) International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 35(8): 1381-95
Davidson, L.M., Demaray, M.K. (2007) Social support as a moderator between victimization and internalizing-externalizing distress from bullying. School Psychology Review, 36(3): 383-405
Demaray, M.K., Malecki, C.K. (2002) Critical levels of perceived social support associated with student adjustment. School Psychology Quarterly, 17(3): 213-241
Demaray, M.K., Malecki, C.K., Davidson, L.M., Hodgson, K.K., Rebus, P. (2005) The relationship between social support and student adjustment: A longitudinal analysis. Psychology in the Schools, 42(7): 691-706
Dowda, M., Dishman, R.K., Pfeiffer, K.A., Pate, R.R. (2007) Family support for physical activity in girls from 8th to 12th grade in South Carolina. Preventive Medicine, 44(2): 153-159
Eccles, J.S., Harold, R.D. (1991) Gender differences in sport involvement: Applying the eccles' expectancy-value model. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 3(1): 7-35
Erwin, P.G. (1985) Similarity of attitudes and constructs in children's friendships. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 40(3): 470-485
Fogelholm, M., Nuutinen, O., Pasanen, M., Myohanen, E., Saatela, T. (1999) Parent-child relationship of physical activity patterns and obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 23(12): 1262-8
Frey, C.U. (1996) Social support in healthy adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 25, 17-32
Furman, W., Buhrmester, D. (1992) Age and sex differences in perceptions of networks of personal relationships. Child Dev, 63(1): 103-15
Gustafson, S.L., Rhodes, R.E. (2006) Parental Correlates of Physical Activity in Children and Early Adolescents. Sports Medicine, 36(1): 79-97
Harter, S. (1985) Manual for the self-perception prole for children: (Revision of the perceived competence scale for children). University of Denver
Harter, S. (2001) The construction of the self: A developmental perspective. New York: Guilford Publications
Hohepa, M., Scragg, R., Schofield, G., Kolt, G.S., Schaaf, D. (2007) Social support for youth physical activity: Importance of siblings, parents, friends and school support across a segmented school day. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 4(1): 54
Jackson, Y., Warren, J.S. (2000) Appraisal, Social Support, and Life Events: Predicting Outcome Behavior in School-Age Children. Child Development, 71(5): 1441-1457
Maccoby, E.E. (1966) The development of sex-differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press
Malecki, C.K., Demaray, M.K. (2003) What Type of Support Do They Need? Investigating Student Adjustment as Related to Emotional, Informational, Appraisal, and Instrumental Support. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(3): 231-252
Myers, L., Strikmiller, P.K., Webber, L.S., Berenson, G.S. (1996) Physical and sedentary activity in school children grades 5-8: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 28(7): 852-9
Neisen, M., Braun, C.A., Shepherd, L. (2007) A school-based physical activity program tailored to adolescent girls. Journal of Education and Human Development, 1(1)
Ommundsen, Y., Vaglum, P. (2007) The influence of low perceived soccer and social competence on later dropout from soccer: a prospective study of young boys. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 1(3): 180-188
Power, T.G., Woolger, C. (1994) Parenting Practices and Age-Group Swimming: A Correlational Study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65(1): 59-66
Pugliese, J., Tinsley, B. (2007) Parental socialization of child and adolescent physical activity: A meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 21(3): 331-343
Scanlan, T.K., Lewthwaite, R. (1988) From stress to enjoyment: Parental and coach influences on young participants. in: Competitive sports for children and youth: An overview of research and issues, 47-58
Trost, S.G., Pate, R.R., Saunders, R., Ward, D.S., Dowda, M., Felton, G. (1997) A prospective study of the determinants of physical activity in rural fifth-grade children. Prev Med, 26(2): 257-63
van der Horst, K., Paw, M.J.A., Twisk, J.W.R., van Mechelen, W. (2007) A Brief Review on Correlates of Physical Activity and Sedentariness in Youth. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(8): 1241-1250
Vondra, J., Garbarino, J. (1988) Social inuences on adolescent behavior problems. in: Social networks of children, adolescents, and college students, 195-224
Voorhees, C.C., Murray, D., Welk, G., Birnbaum, A., Ribisl, K.M., Johnson, C.C., Pfeiffer, K.A., Saksvig, B., Jobe, J.B. (2005) The Role of Peer Social Network Factors and Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls. American Journal of Health Behavior, 29(2): 183-190
Weiss, M.R., Chaumeton, N. (1992) Motivational orientations in sport. in: Horn T.S. [ed.] Advances in sport psychology, Champaign: Human Kinetics, str. 61-99
Weiss, M.R. (2000) Motivating kids in physical activity: President's council on physical fitness and sports. Research Digest, 3(11), 1-8
Weiss, M.R., Hayashi, C.T. (1995) All in the Family: Parent-Child Influences in Competitive Youth Gymnastics. Pediatric Exercise Science, 7(1): 36-48
Wheeler, L., Nezlek, J. (1977) Sex differences in social participation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35(10): 742-754