Article metrics

  • citations in SCindeks: 0
  • citations in CrossRef:0
  • citations in Google Scholar:[=>]
  • visits in previous 30 days:28
  • full-text downloads in 30 days:12
article: 7 from 13  
Back back to result list
Fizička kultura
2018, vol. 72, iss. 1, pp. 71-79
article language: English, Serbian
document type: Original Scientific Paper

Creative Commons License 4.0
Effects of proprioceptive training on explosive strenght, aglility and coordination of young rhythmic gymnasts
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Sports and Physical Education



Effects of the Applied Physical Activity to Locomotor, Metabolic, Psycho-Social and Educational Status of the Population of the Republic of Serbia (MESTD - 47015)


The aim of this study was to examine the influence of proprioceptive training on explosive strength, agility and coordination in young rhythmic gymnasts. The study was conducted on a sample of 74 healthy girls, aged 7 to 9 years of age who train rhythmic gymnastics. The whole sample was divided into two groups: experimental (43 girls) and control (31 girls). The experimental group had the proprioception training before their regular trainings for 12 weeks (24 trainings), while the control group had only rhythmic gymnastics trainings. Effects of proprioceptive trainings on the examined motor abilities were estimated by two explosive strength tests, three coordination tests and two agility tests. All respondents were tested before the application of the experimental treatment (pre-test) and after its completion (post-test). To examine differences in the achieved results between the initial and final measurement for each group, t-test for dependent samples was used. To determine differences between groups at the initial and final measurement, t-test for independent samples was used. By comparing results from the initial and final measurement, improvement in all tests for the observed abilities was perceived in the experimental group, while improvement in coordination tests and one agility test was noticed in the control group. Testing differences in results between groups in the final measurement showed that there are differed only in agility tests, and in favour of the experimental group. Based on the obtained results, the conclusion was that the application of proprioceptive training in rhythmic gymnasts can contribute to improvement of agility, while in other observed abilities we cannot conclusively claim that improvement was the direct product of proprioceptive training.


proprioceptiveness; rhythmic gymnastic; girls


Newly uploaded article: references checking, normalizing and linking in progress.
Bernier, J.N., & Perrin, D.H. (1998). Effect of coordination training on proprioception of the functionally unstable ankle. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 27(4), 264-275.
Cressey, E. M., West, C. A., Tiberio, D. P., Kraemer, W. J., & Maresh, C. M. (2007). The effects of ten weeks of lower-body unstable surface training on markers of athletic performance. e Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21(2), 561-567.
Dobrijević, S., Moskovljević, L., & Dabović, M. (2016). The influence of proprioceptive training on young rhythmic gymnasts balance. Facta Universitatis, Series: Physical Education and Sport, 247-255.
Drabik, J. (1996). Children and Sports Training. Island Point, VT: Stadium Publishing Company.
Elis, E., & Rosenbaum, D. (2001). A multi-station proprioceptive exercise program in patients with ankle instability. Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, 33(12), 1991-1998.
Eils, E., Schröter, R., Schröder, M., Gerss, J., & Rosenbaum, D. (2010). Multistation proprioceptive exercise program prevents ankle injures in basketball. Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, 42(11), 2098-2105.
Enoksen, E., Tonnessen, E., & Shalfawi, S. (2009). Validity and reliability of the Newtest Power timer 300-series® testing system. Journal of sports sciences, 27(1), 77-84.
EUROPEAN TEST OF PHYSICALFITNESS, (1988), Council of Europe, Rome.
Hoffman, M., & Payne, V.G. (1995). The effects of proprioceptive ankle disk training on healthysubjects. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 21(2), 90-93.
Harris, T., & Dudley, G. (2000). Neuromuscular Anatomy and Adaptations to Conditioning. Baechle (pp. 15-25). TR & Earle, RW (Eds.) National Strength and Conditioning Association (2nd) edition.
Gaun, H., Tropp, H., & Odenrick, P. (1988). Effects of ankle disc training on postural control with functional instability of the ankle joint. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 9(2), 141-144.
Gioftsidou, A., Malliou, P., Pas, G., Beneka, A., Godolias, G., & Maganaris, C. N. (2006). The effects of socce rtraining and timing of balance training on balance ability. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 96(6), 659-664.
Granacher, U., Gollhofer, A., & Kriemler, S. (2010). Effects of balance training on postural sway, leg extensor strength, and jumping height in adolescents. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 81(3), 245-251.
Gruber, M., & Gollhofer, A. (2004). Impact of sensori motor training on the rate of force development and neural activation. European journal of applied physiology, 92(1-2), 98-105.
Gužalovskij, A.A. (1984): Problema kritičeskih periodov ontogeneza i ee značenie dlja teorii i praktiki fizičeskogo vospitanija. [The problem of ontogeny critical periods and its significance for the theory and practice of physical education. In Russian]. Fizkul’tura i sport, S. 211-224.
Irrgang, J.J., Whitney, S.L., & Cox, E.D. (1994). Balance and proprioceptive training for rehabilitation of the lower extremity. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 3(1), 68-83.
Jukić, I., Milanović, L., Šimek, S., Nakić, J., & Komes, Z. (2003). Metodika proprioceptivnog treninga na balans pločama. [Methods of proprioceptive training on balance plates. In Croatian] Kondicijski trening, 1(1), 55-59.
Kurelić, N., Momirović, K., Stojanović, M., Šturm, J., Radojević, Đ., & Viskić-Štalec, N. (1975). Struktura i razvoj morfoloških i motoričkih dimenzija omladine. [Structure and development of morphological and motoric dimensions of youth. In Serbo-Croatian]. Institut za naučna istraživanja Fakulteta za fizičko vaspitanje, Beograd.
Laskowski, E.R., Newcomer-Aney, K., & Smith, J. (1997). Rening rehabilitation with proprioception training: Expediting return to play. The Physician and Sports medicine, 25(10).
Lephart, S.M., & Fu, F.H. (2000). Proprioception and Neuromuscular Control and Joint Stability. Champaign, II: Human Kinetics.
Liu-Ambrose, T., Taunton, J.E., MacIntyre, D., McConkey, P., & Khan, K.M. (2003). The effects of proprioceptive of strength training on the neuromuscular function of the ACL reconstructed knee: a randomized clinical trial. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sport, 13(2), 115-123.
Lukić, A. (2010). Efekti proprioceptivnog treninga na razvijanje ravnoteže i poboljšanje tehnike izvođenja u sportskom plesu. [PhD thesis: The effects of proprioceptive training on developing the balance and improving the technique of performing in sports dancing. In Serbian]. Doktorska disertacija, Univerzitet u Banja Luci, Fakultet fizičkog vaspitnja i sporta, Banja Luka.
Metikoš, D., Hofman, E., Prot, F., Pintar, Ţ., & Oreb, G. (1989). Mjerenje bazičnih motoričkih dimenzija sportaša [Measurement of basic motor characteristics of athletes. In Croatian]. Zagreb, Faculty of Physical Culture University of Zagreb.
Milanović, L. (2003). 20 jardi - test za procjenu agilnosti. [20 yards - agility test. In Croatian]. Kondicijski trening, 1(1), 12-13.
Robbins, S., &Waked, E. (1998). Factors associated with ankle injuries. Preventive measures. Sports Medicine, 25(1), 63-72.
Romero-Franco, N., Martínez-López, E., Lomas-Vega, R., Hita-Contreras, F., & Martínez-Amat, A. (2012). Effects of proprioceptive training program on core stability and center of gravity control in sprinters. e Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(8), 2071-2077.
Sheppard, J. M., & Young, W. B. (2006). Agility literature review: Classications, training and testing. Journal of sports sciences, 24(9), 919-932.
Sheth, P., Yu, B., Laskowski, E.R., & An, K.N. (1997). Ankle disk training inuences reaction times of selected muscle in a simulated ankle sprain. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 25(4), 538-543.
Spencer, M., Dawson, B. Goodman, C., Dascombe, B., & Bishop, D. (2008). Performance and metabolism in repeated sprint exercise: effect of recovery intensity. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 103, 545-552.
Šebić-Zuhrić, L., Rađo, I. i Bonacin, D. (2007). Efekti proprioceptivnog treninga na rezultate u specifičnim gibanjima ritmičke gimnastike. [Effects of proprioceptive training on results in specific movements of rhythmic gymnastics. In Croatian] Acta Kinesiologica, 1(2007) 1:30-37.
Šimek, S., Milanović, D., & Jukić, I. (2008). The effects of proprioceptive training on jumping and agility performance. Kineziologija, 39(2), 131-141.
Vad, V., Hong, H. M., Zazzali, M., Agi, N., & Basrai, D. (2002). Exercise recommendations in athletes with earlyo steoarthritis of the knee. Sports medicine, 32(11), 729-739.
Voight, M. L., & Cook, G. (1996). Clinical application of closed kinetic chain exercise. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 5(1), 25-44.
Wester, J.U., Jespersen, S.M., Nielsen, K.D., & Neumann, L. (1996). Wobble board training after partial sprains of the lateral ligaments of the ankle - a prospective randomized study. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy,23(5), 332-336.
Wolf-Cvitak, J., Grčić-Zubčević, N., & Dolančić, A. (2002). Kinesthetic perception in rhythmic gymnastics open vs. closed eye performance. In D. Milanović & F. Prot (Eds.). Kinesiology - New Perspectives, Proceedings, 3rd International Scientific Conference. Opatija, 25-29 September, pp. 253-256. Zagreb: Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb.
Yaggie, J. A., & Campbell, B. M. (2006). Effects of balance training on selected skills. e Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20(2), 422-428.