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Fizička kultura
2018, vol. 72, br. 2, str. 139-147
jezik rada: srpski, engleski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
doi:10.5937/fizkul1802139M

Creative Commons License 4.0
Sportsko srce
aUniverzitet u Beogradu, Farmaceutski fakultet
bUniverzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja
cUniverzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet
dUniverzitet u Ilinoisu, Koledž primenjenih zdravstvenih nauka, Odeljenje za fizikalnu terapiju, Čikago, SAD
eUniverzitet u Beogradu, Farmaceutski fakultet + Klinički centar Srbije, Klinika za kardiologiju

e-adresa: katarina.d.milutinovic@gmail.com

Sažetak

Sportsko srce predstavlja efekat morfoloških i funkcionalnih adaptacija srca koje se razvijaju tokom vremena, pod uticajem sportskog treninga. Promene na srcu kod sportista za posledicu imaju promenu efikasnosti i ekonomičnosti srčanog rada. Manifestuju se hipertrofijom i dilatacijom srca, sa pratećom angiogenezom i usporenim srčanim radom, procesima koji su pod kontrolom različitih regulatornih sistema i genetske predispozicije. Problem iznenadne srčane smrti u sportu, čija se incidenca ne smanjuje uprkos brojnim aktivnostima koje se sprovode u cilju njene prevencije, nameće potrebu boljeg definisanja sportskog srca, naročito u smislu njegovog razlikovanja od pojedinih patoloških stanja. Kod izvesnog broja sportista uočavaju se promene električne aktivnosti, te je i u tom smislu potrebno razlikovati zdravo od bolesnog srca. Poslednjih godina posebno je u fokusu definisanje adaptivnih promena desnog srca. Dodatno, postoje nova saznanja o hormonskoj regulaciji adaptivnih promena srca sportista, a istražuju se i efekti nefizioloških manipulacija u trenažnom procesu koji mogu 'skrenuti' fiziološke procese u patološkom pravcu. U cilju prevencije iznenadne srčane smrti, neophodno je redovno pregledanje kako sportista, tako i fizički aktivnog dela populacije. Aktuelne preporuke daju smernice za masovne skrininge i individualne preglede sportista, za sve starosne grupe oba pola, kao i pripadnike javnih službi koje u opisu posla imaju intenzivne fizičke napore. Dok američke preporuke zahtevaju samo detaljnu anamnezu i fizikalni pregled, evropske preporuke zahtevaju i inicijalnu elektrokardiografiju. I evropske i američke preporuke zahtevaju sprovođenje dodatnih ispitivanja kod sumnje na postojanje bilo kakvog oboljenja. Ove preglede bi trebalo obavljati pre početka trenažnog procesa, kao i tokom perioda treniranja i takmičenja.

Ključne reči

morfofunkcionalne promene; iznenadna srčana smrt; prevencija; preporuke

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