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Politeia
2018, vol. 8, br. 16, str. 15-37
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
doi:10.5937/politeia0-20021

Creative Commons License 4.0
Od uvoda iz 1857 do predgovora iz 1867 - osvrt na Marksov metod u kritici političke ekonomije
University of Lancaster, United Kingdom

e-adresa: b.jessop@lancaster.ac.uk

Sažetak

U predgovoru izdanju Kapitala iz 1867. godine, Marks je primijetio da je početak istraživanja težak u bilo kojoj nauci. Ovaj tekst otkrio je Marksov i Engelsov stav da postoji samo jedna nauka: istorija, koja obuhvata prirodu i društvo. Potpuno očekivano, prirodne nauke uticale su značajno na njihov rad. U ovom radu bilježi se uticaj darvinizma, termodinamike i biologije ćelije na Marksove analize, a ovo posljednje ispituje se detaljno. Kada se Marks odlučio za pojam oblika vrijednosti robe kao osnovu za pisanje Kapitala, on ga je opisao kao ekonomski oblik ćelije kapitalističkog načina proizvodnje, što je odražavalo novi korak u njegovoj kritici političke ekonomije. Razlog za takav stav leži u činjenici što je, za razliku od dva prethodna metoda opisana u Uvodu iz 1857. godine, njegovo naknadno zanimanje za biologiju ćelije nagovijestilo treći metod koji će ih zamijeniti. Roba mu je poslužila kao najjednostavnija, najočiglednija i najneposrednija osnovna jedinica odnosa u kapitalu, te kao presupozicija u analizi i njen mogući ishod kako su se otkrivale sve kontradiktorne i dinamičke implikacije za logiku kapitala. U ovome se odražava njegovo ponovno čitanje Hegelove Nauke logike, koja se takođe bavila pitanjem polazne osnove u istraživanju organskog totaliteta. U tom pogledu, analogija sa ćelijom pokazala se korisnom, pošto smo uočili šest veza između biologije ćelije i Marksove analize kapitalističkog načina proizvodnje. Ali one ostaju samo analogije, pošto nisu usmjeravale niti njegova ključna istraživanja niti njihovo predstavljanje, što odražava istorijske specifičnosti odnosa u kapitalu. Rad zaključujemo nekim opštim zaključcima o otkrićima, metodu i načinu predstavljanja.

Ključne reči

Kapital; ćelijski oblik; teorija ćelije; roba; način predstavljanja; način istraživanja; novac; prirodne nauke; polazna osnova

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