Metrika članka

  • citati u SCindeksu: 0
  • citati u CrossRef-u:0
  • citati u Google Scholaru:[=>]
  • posete u poslednjih 30 dana:5
  • preuzimanja u poslednjih 30 dana:4
članak: 5 od 8  
Back povratak na rezultate
Scripta Medica
2019, vol. 50, br. 2, str. 89-96
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
objavljeno: 13/08/2019
doi: 10.5937/scriptamed50-22426
Analysis of the Benzodiazepine prescribing patterns in the primary healthcare of the Republic of Srpska
(naslov ne postoji na srpskom)
aPrimary Healthcare Centre Modriča, the Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina + Univerzitet u Banjoj Luci, Medicinski fakultet, Republika Srpska, BiH
bUniverzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet, Institut za kardiovaskularne bolesti 'Dedinje'



(ne postoji na srpskom)
Background: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are very often inappropriately prescribed drugs. The aim of this study is to analyse physicians' prescribing patterns for BZD in Republic of Srpska, and to assess to what extent primary diagnosis determine the dose and the length of use of BZDs. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the physicians' prescription habits based on the database of Family Medicine Information Systems of Republic of Srpska, as well as on data from patient's medical record were performed. Patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, including the data on the type and dose of BZDs prescribed, were recorded and evaluated. Results: BZDs were mostly prescribed for anxiety disorders (30.05%), for depressive disorders (17.54%), and for anxiety-depressive disorders (10.86%). A significant amount of BZDs was prescribed for non-psychiatric diagnoses (23.81%). Patients suffering from psychotic disorders were taking the highest dose of BZD and for the longest periods of time (p<0.001). Longer use of BZDs was in women (r=0.04, p<0.001), elderly (r=0.178, p<0.001), single people (r=0.12, p<0.001), those who live in urban areas (r=0.45, p<0.001) and those who were prescribed higher doses (r=0.213, p<0.001). Conclusion: A significant percentage of patients were using the BZDs for longer period of time than recommended. Strongest positive correlation was found between the dose and the length of use, which implies the addictive potential of BZDs. Since it has been noticed that prolonged use, or abuse is present regardless of the diagnosis, precaution is advised when prescribing BZDs even for acute diseases.

Ključne reči


*** (2016) The resource site for involuntary Benzodiazepine tranquiliser addiction, withdrawal & recovery: Benzodiazepine equivalence table. Newcastle upon Type, [Internet].; [cited 2019-Apr-10]. Available from:
Alvarenga, J.M., de Loyola, F.A.I., Firmo, J.O.A., Lima-Costa, M.F., Uchoa, E. (2008) Prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics associated with benzodiazepines use among community dwelling older adults: The Bambuí Health and Aging Study (BHAS). Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 30(1): 7-11
Benzodiazepine Committee (2002) Benzodiazepines: Good practice guidelines for clinicians. Dublin: Department of Health and Children, [Internet]. [cited 2015 Jul 20]. Available from:
Boyd, A., van de Velde, S., Pivette, M., ten Have, M., Florescu, S., o'Neill S., Caldas-De-almeida, J.M., Vilagut, G., Haro, J.M., Alonso, J., Kovess-Masféty, V. (2015) Gender differences in psychotropic use across Europe: Results from a large cross-sectional, population-based study. European Psychiatry, 30(6): 778-788
Cadogan, C.A., Ryan, C., Cahir, C., Bradley, C.P., Bennett, K. (2018) Benzodiazepine and Z-drug prescribing in Ireland: Analysis of national prescribing trends from 2005 to 2015. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 84(6): 1354-1363
Cahir, C., Fahey, T., Teeling, M., Teljeur, C., Feely, J., Bennett, K. (2010) Potentially inappropriate prescribing and cost outcomes for older people: A national population study. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 69(5): 543-552
Canham, S.L. (2015) What's loneliness got to do with it? Older women who use benzodiazepines. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 34(1): E7-E12
Choi, J., Payne, T.J., Ma, J.Z., Li, M.D. (2017) Relationship between Personality Traits and Nicotine Dependence in Male and Female Smokers of African-American and European-American Samples. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 8: 122-122
Dold, M., Li, C., Tardy, M., Khorsand, V., Gillies, D., Leucht, S. (2012) Benzodiazepines for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, Nov 14;11:CD006391
Hooft, C.S., Schoofs, M.W., Ziere, G., Hofman, A., Pols, H.A., Sturkenboom, M.C., et al. (2008) Inappropriate Benzodiazepine use in older adults and the risk of fracture. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 66: 276-82
Jacob, L., Rapp, M.A., Kostev, K. (2017) Long-term use of benzodiazepines in older patients in Germany: A retrospective analysis. Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology, 7(6-7): 191-200
Johnson, C.F., Frei, C., Downes, N., McTaggart, S.A., Akram, G. (2016) Benzodiazepine and z-hypnotic prescribing for older people in primary care: A cross-sectional population-based study. British Journal of General Practice, 66(647): e410-e415
Jones, J.D., Mogali, S., Comer, S.D. (2012) Polydrug abuse: A review of opioid and Benzodiazepine combination use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 125(1-2): 8-18
Kurko, T.A.T., Saastamoinen, L.K., Tähkäpää, S., Tuulio-Henriksson, A., Taiminen, T., Tiihonen, J., Airaksinen, M.S., Hietala, J. (2015) Long-term use of benzodiazepines: Definitions, prevalence and usage patterns: A systematic review of register-based studies. European Psychiatry, 30(8): 1037-1047
Lader, M. (2014) Benzodiazepine harm: How can it be reduced?. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 77(2): 295-301
Lindqvist, O., Lundquist, G., Dickman, A., Bükki, J., Lunder, U., Hagelin, C.L., Rasmussen, B.H., Sauter, S., Tishelman, C. (2013) Four Essential Drugs Needed for Quality Care of the Dying: A Delphi-Study Based International Expert Consensus Opinion. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 16(1): 38-43
Linnet, K., Gudmundsson, L.S., Birgisdottir, F.G., Sigurdsson, E.L., Johannsson, M., Tomasdottir, M.O., Sigurdsson, J.A. (2016) Multimorbidity and use of hypnotic and anxiolytic drugs: Cross-sectional and follow-up study in primary healthcare in Iceland. BMC Family Practice, 17(1): 69-69
Liu, S.J., Lan, Y., Wu, L., Yan, W.S. (2019) Profiles of Impulsivity in Problematic Internet Users and Cigarette Smokers. Frontiers in Psychology, 10: 772-772
Manthey, L., van Veen, T., Giltay, E.J., Stoop, J.E., Neven, A.K., Penninx, B.W.J.H., Zitman, F.G. (2011) Correlates of (inappropriate) Benzodiazepine use: The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 71(2): 263-272
Maust, D.T., Lin, L.A., Blow, F.C. (2019) Benzodiazepine Use and Misuse Among Adults in the United States. Psychiatric Services, 70(2): 97-106
Medscape (2018) Benzodiazepine equivalency table. New York, NY (USA), [Internet]. Medscape, Jul 31 [cited 2019-Apr-10]. Available from: http://emedicine.
Nordfjærn, T., Bjerkeset, O., Bratberg, G., Moylan, S., Berk, M., Gråwe, R. (2014) Socio-demographic, lifestyle and psychological predictors of Benzodiazepine and z-hypnotic use patterns. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 68(2): 107-116
Olfson, M., King, M., Schoenbaum, M. (2015) Benzodiazepine Use in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry, 72(2): 136-136
Palmaro, A., Dupouy, J., Lapeyre-Mestre, M. (2015) Benzodiazepines and risk of death: Results from two large cohort studies in France and UK. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 25(10): 1566-1577
Panes, A., Pariente, A., Bénard-Laribière, A., Lassalle, R., Dureau-Pournin, C., Lorrain, S., Tournier, M., Fourrier-Réglat, A. (2018) Use of benzodiazepines and z-drugs not compliant with guidelines and associated factors: A population-based study. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, Dec 11. [Epub ahead of print]
Park, H., Satoh, H., Miki, A., Urushihara, H., Sawada, Y. (2015) Medications associated with falls in older people: Systematic review of publications from a recent 5-year period. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 71(12): 1429-1440
Ramadan, W., Khoury, G., Deeb, M., Sheikh-Taka, M. (2016) Prescription patterns of benzodiazepines in the Lebanese adult population: A cross-sectional study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat, 12: 2299-305
Romans, S., Cohen, M., Forte, T. (2011) Rates of depression and anxiety in urban and rural Canada. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 46(7): 567-575
Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (2015) Prescribing drugs of dependence in general practice, Part B: Benzodiazepines. Victoria (AU), [Internet]. [cited 2017 Aug 8]. Available from:
Roy-Byrne, P.P. (2005) The GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex: Structure, function, and role in anxiety. J Clin Psychiatry, 66(2): 14-20
Sim, F., Sweetman, I., Kapur, S., Patel, M.X. (2015) Re-examining the role of benzodiazepines in the treatment of schizophrenia: A systematic review. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 29(2): 212-223
Sirdifield, C., Anthierens, S., Creupelandt, H., Chipchase, S.Y., Christiaens, T., Siriwardena, A.N. (2013) General practitioners' experiences and perceptions of Benzodiazepine prescribing: Systematic review and meta-synthesis. BMC Family Practice, 14(1): 191-191
Sonnenberg, C.M., Bierman, E.J.M., Deeg, D.J.H., Comijs, H.C., van Tilburg, W., Beekman, A.T.F. (2012) Ten-year trends in Benzodiazepine use in the Dutch population. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47(2): 293-301
Subramaniam, M., He, V.Y., Vaingankar, J.A., Abdin, E., Chong, S.A. (2013) Prevalence of and factors related to the use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines: Results from the Singapore Mental Health Study. BMC Psychiatry, 13(1): 231-231
Sundseth, A.C., Gjelstad, S., Straand, J., Rosvold, E.O. (2018) General practitioners' prescriptions of benzodiazepines, Z-hypnotics and opioid analgesics for elderly patients during direct and indirect contacts: A cross-sectional, observational study. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 36(2): 115-122
Tahiri, Z., Kellici, S., Mone, I., Shabani, D., Qazimi, M., Burazeri, G. (2017) Prevalence and correlates of inappropriate use of benzodiazepines in Kosovo. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 39(4): 669-673
Tvete, I.F., Bjorner, T., Skomedal, T. (2015) Risk factors for excessive Benzodiazepine use in a working age population: A nationwide 5-year survey in Norway. Scand J Prim Helath Care, 33(4): 252-59
Vicens, C., Leiva, A., Bejarano, F., Sempere, E., Rodrí-Guez-rincón, R.M., Fiol, F., et al. (2019) Intervention to reduce Benzodiazepine prescriptions in primary care, study protocol of a hybrid type 1 cluster randomised controlled trial: The BENZORED study. BMJ Open, 9(1): 22046-22046
Weiß, V., Nau, R., Glaeske, G., Hummers, E., Himmel, W. (2019) The interplay of context factors in hypnotic and sedative prescription in primary and secondary care: A qualitative study. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 75(1): 87-97
WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology (2009) ATC/DDD System. Oslo (NO), [Internet]. [cited 2019-Apr-10]. Available from:
Winkler, A., Auer, C., Doering, B.K., Rief, W. (2014) Drug Treatment of Primary Insomnia: A Meta-Analysis of Polysomnographic Randomized Controlled Trials. CNS Drugs, 28(9): 799-816
Zhong, G., Wang, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhao, Y. (2015) Association between Benzodiazepine Use and Dementia: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS One, 10(5): e0127836-e0127836