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Zdravstvena zaštita
2011, vol. 40, br. 2, str. 51-57
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: stručni članak

Aerozagađenje i hronična opstruktivna bolest pluća
aInstitut za javno zdravlje, Niš
bOdeljenje primarne zdravstvene zaštite, Vojna bolnica, Niš

Sažetak

Zdravstveni efekti aerozagađenja poslednjih godina predmet su intenzivnog istraživanja. Postojanje negativnih zdravstvenih efekata dokazano je i u studijama akutne i u studijama hronične izloženosti aerozagađenju. Rad predstavlja prikaz rezultata epidemioloških studija u poslednjih deset godina i razmatra dokaze uticaja kratkotrajnog porasta koncentracija zagađujućih materija u ambijentalnom vazduhu na akutne zdravstvene efekte kod obolelih od hronične opstruktivne bolesti pluća (HOBP). Epidemiološke studije su pokazale da oboleli od HOBP-a pokazuju veću osetljivost na akutne efekte aerozagađenja i da je HOBP jedan od značajnih uzroka mortaliteta koji je povezan sa aerozagađenjem. U periodu povećanog aerozagađenja utvrđeno je povećanje broja akutnih egzacerbacija HOBP-a. Porast koncentracija čestica čađi, sumpor-dioksida i azot-dioksida povezani su sa porastom respiratornih simptoma, hospitalnih prijema i prijema u hitnu pomoć zbog egzacerbacije, kao i porastom mortaliteta zbog HOBP-a. Postoje dokazi da su oboleli od respiratornih bolesti osetljiviji na efekte zagađujućih materija u vazduhu, u odnosu na zdrave osobe. Čak i blagi efekti aerozagađenja mogu predstavljati značajan problem, s obzirom na opštu izloženost populacije.

Ključne reči

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