Article metrics

  • citations in SCindeks: 0
  • citations in CrossRef:0
  • citations in Google Scholar:[=>]
  • visits in previous 30 days:3
  • full-text downloads in 30 days:2
article: 9 from 11  
Back back to result list
Srce i krvni sudovi
2012, vol. 31, iss. 4, pp. 258-262
article language: Serbian
document type: Review Paper
doi:10.5937/siks1204258V


Real time three-dimensional echocardiography: The importance of the third dimension in everyday clinical practice
aKlinički centar Srbije, Klinika za kardiologiju, Beograd + Univerzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet, Beograd
bKlinički centar Srbije, Klinika za kardiologiju, Beograd

e-mail: bosavt@gmail.com

Abstract

Over the past four decades, echocardiography, in addition to electrocardiography, became a primary diagnostic tool in cardiology. At the same time by the development of microprocessors and computers technology, diagnostic capabilities of echocardiography have been increased exponentially. Although conventional echocardiography contributed significantly to the understanding of the morphology and function of the heart, the display is limited in two dimensions, which requires mental reconstruction of the third dimension by the sonographer. That is why the concept of three-dimensional display (3D) was accepted as a natural evolution of the technology. During the last decade there is the evident development of 3D echocardiography from subsequent slow (off-line) reconstruction of cardiac structures to the real time volume imaging (RT3D). The main proven advantage of this technique is the improved accuracy of echocardiographic assessment of volume and mass of the heart cavities, which is achieved by eliminating the need for geometric models and errors caused by short sections. Another advantage of RT3D recording is unique, realistic and comprehensive view of overall cardiac valvular and congenital anomalies, which proved to be extremely useful in guiding percutaneous procedures and intraoperative surgical interventions. However, the inclusion of 3D echocardiography in clinical practice, requires the understanding of the technical principles and a systematic approach to the acquisition and analysis of images. It also requires an understanding of spatial anatomy and hemodynamics, knowledge of the limitations of these methods and the interpretation of findings with careful clinical examination.

Keywords

3D-echocardiography; indications

References

Delabays, A., Jeanrenaud, X., Chassot, P-G., von Segesser, L.K., Kappenberger, L. (2004) Localization and quantification of mitral valve prolapse using three-dimensional echocardiography. Eur J Echocardiogr, 5(6): 422-9
Gianfaldoni, M.L., Venturi, F., Petix, N.R., i dr. (2002) Quantitative evaluation of functional mitral insufficiency in dilated cardiomyopathy: Morphological and functional correlations. Ital Heart J, 3, 738-745
Hofmann, T., Franzen, O., Koschyk, D.H., von Kodolitsch, Y., Goldmann, B., Meinertz, T. (2004) Three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for assessing shunt volume in atrial septal defects. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, 17(11): 1173-1178
Hung, J., Lang, R., Flachskampf, F., Shernan, S.K., McCulloch, M.L., Adams, D.B., Thomas, J., Vannan, M., Ryan, T. (2007) 3D Echocardiography: A Review of the Current Status and Future Directions. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, 20(3): 213-233
Krenning, B.J., Kirschbaum, S.W., Soliman, O.I.I., Nemes, A., van Geuns, R., Vletter, W.B., Veltman, C.E., ten Cate, F.J., Roelandt, J.R.T.C., Geleijnse, M.L. (2007) Comparison of Contrast Agent-Enhanced Versus Non-Contrast Agent-Enhanced Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography for Analysis of Left Ventricular Systolic Function. American Journal of Cardiology, 100(9): 1485-1489
Krenning, B.J., Szili-Torok, T., Voormolen, M.M., Theuns, D.A.M.J., Jordaens, L.J., Lancée, C.T., de Jong, N., van der Steen, A.F.W., Ten, C.F.J., Roelandt, J.R.T.C. (2005) Guiding and optimization of resynchronization therapy with dynamic three-dimensional echocardiography and segmental volume-time curves: a feasibility study. European Journal of Heart Failure, 6(5): 619-625
Kuhl, H.P., Schreckenberg, M., Rulands, D., i dr. (2004) High resolution transthoracic real-time three dimensional echocardiography: Quantitation of cardiac volumes and function using semiautomatic border detection and comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol, 43: 2083-90
Kwan, J., Qin, J.X., Popović, Z.B., Agler, D.A., Thomas, J.D., Shiota, T. (2004) Geometric changes of mitral annulus assessed by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography: Becoming enlarged and less nonplanar in the anteroposterior direction during systole in proportion to global left ventricular systolic function. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, 17(11): 1179-1184
Lang, M.R., Badano, P.L., Tsang, W., i dr. (2012) Guidelines and standards EAE/ASE: Recommendations for image acquisition and display using three-dimensional echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr, 25, 3-46
Lang, R.M., Mor-Avi, V., Sugeng, L., Nieman, P.S., Sahn, D.J. (2006) Three-Dimensional Echocardiography. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 48(10): 2053-2069
Mæhle, J., Bjoernstad, K., Aakhus, S., Torp, H.G., Angelsen, B.A.J. (1994) Three-Dimensional Echocardiography for Quantitative Left Ventricular Wall Motion Analysis:. Echocardiography, 11(4): 397-408
Maeno, Y.V. (2000) Dynamic morphology of the secundum atrial septal defect evaluated by three dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography. Heart, 83(6): 673-677
Magni, G., Cao, Q., Sugeng, L., Delabays, A., Marx, G., Ludomirski, A., Vogel, M., Pandian, N.G. (1996) Volume-rendered, three-dimensional echocardiographi determination of the size, shape, and position of atrial septal defects: Validation in an in vitro model. American Heart Journal, 132(2): 376-381
Matsumura, Y., Hozumi, T., Arai, K., Sugioka, K., Ujino, K., Takemoto, Y., Yamagishi, H., Yoshiyama, M., Yoshikawa, J. (2005) Non-invasive assessment of myocardial ischaemia using new real-time three-dimensional dobutamine stress echocardiography: comparison with conventional two-dimensional methods. European Heart Journal, 26(16): 1625-1632
Monaghan, M. (2006) Role of real time 3D echocardiography in evaluating the left ventricle. Heart, 92(1): 131-136
Mor-Avi, V., Sugeng, L., Lang, R.M. (2009) Real-Time 3-Dimensional Echocardiography. Circulation, 119(2): 314-329
Pemberton, J., Li, X., Karamlou, T., Sandquist, C.A., Thiele, K., Shen, I., Ungerleider, R.M., Kenny, A., Sahn, D.J. (2005) The use of live three-dimensional Doppler echocardiography in the measurement of cardiac output. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 45(3): 433-438
Sugeng, L., Weinert, L., Thiele, K., Lang, R.M. (2003) Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography Using a Novel Matrix Array Transducer. Echocardiography, 20(7): 623-635
Weinert, L., Lang, R.M. (2004) Real Time 3D Echocardiography for Rheumatic mitral valve stenosis evaluation: An accurate and novel approach. J Am Coll Cardiol, LP. 42(11); 2091-6