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TIMS. Acta
2018, vol. 12, br. 2, str. 123-131
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
doi:10.5937/timsact12-16261

Creative Commons License 4.0
Dinapenija – pojam, uzroci i posledice
Univerzitet EDUCONS, Fakultet za sport i turizam, Novi Sad

Sažetak

Produženi životni vek predstavlja jedno od najznačajnijih dostignuća čovečanstva, ali i ogroman izazov. Biološko starenje čoveka je povezano sa uobičajenim procesom smanjenja fizičkih sposobnosti i dovodi do smanjenja kapaciteta organizma. Jedna od najizraženijih posledica smanjenja fizičkih sposobnosti je pojava kretnih ograničenja. Fizičke sposobnosti blisko su povezane sa mišićnom snagom, a ona se smanjuje sa starenjem. Smanjenje mišićne snage je značajan faktor narušavanja zdravlja i može biti uzrok poremećaja mehanike hoda, padova, preloma zgloba kuka, kao i gubljenja sposobnosti samostalnog izvođenja osnovnih dnevnih aktivnosti. Ranije se smatralo da je smanjenje mišićne snage u odraslom dobu rezultat atrofije mišićnog tkiva, karakteristične za taj uzrast. Međutim, nedavne longitudinalne i eksperimentalne studije pokazuju da atrofija mišića ima relativno mali doprinos smanjenju mišićne snage, kao i da drugi fiziološki faktori, nezavisni od veličine tkiva, imaju važniju ulogu u predviđanju nastanka mišićne slabosti (dinapenije). U toku procesa starenja, smanjenje mišićne snage je značajno izraženije u odnosu na smanjenje mišićne mase. Trening sa otporom je efikasno sredstvo u poboljšanju snage i veličine mišića zdravih odraslih osoba. Dobro je dokumentovano da takav trening utiče pozitivno na poboljšanje mobilnosti, stabilnosti, brzine mišićne kontrakcije, veličine primenjene sile, itd. Ipak, smernice o treningu sa otporom odraslih osoba sa izraženom mišićnom slabošću, nisu dovoljno precizne i detaljne. Kako bi se takav trening uspešno primenio i kod osoba sa smanjenom mišićnom snagom, potrebne su dugoročne kontrolisane studije uz evaluaciju bioloških faktora smanjenja mišićne snage, a sve u kontekstu razvoja efikasnog programa intervencije i prevencije tretmana ovog stanja.

Ključne reči

dinapenija; starenje; kretna ograničenja

Reference

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