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TIMS. Acta
2015, vol. 9, br. 1, str. 63-74
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
doi:10.5937/timsact9-5997


Fizička aktivnost i mineralna gustina kostiju

Sažetak

Kosti imaju važnu strukturalnu ulogu u organizmu. One obezbeđuju pokretljivost, oslonac, i zaštitu organizma, i predstavljaju mesto gde se skladište esencijalni minerali. Zdrave kosti su od ključnog uticaja na ukupno zdravlje čoveka, a aktivnosti koje promovišu zdravlje i utiču preventivno na nastanak bolesti kostiju su ključne u održavanju jakog i zdravog koštanog sistema. Fizička neaktivnost utiče na smanjenje funkcija koštanog sistema, a učestalo oboljenje koštanog sistema je osteoporoza. Osteoporoza je sistemska bolest koštanog sistema koja dovodi do male gustine kostiju i pogoršanja mikroarhitekture koštanog tkiva, i može dovesti do preloma. Fizička aktivnost je od suštinskog značaja za zdravlje kostiju i prevenciju nastanka osteoporoze. Na osnovu dostupnih informacija, najbolji efekatat na održavanje i stimulaciju formiranja mineralne gustine kostiju ima kombinacija dinamičkih vežbi sa otporom koje angažuju više zglobova, velike mišićne grupe, i opterećuju kičmu i kukove. Rezultati ukazuju da vežbe koje opterećuju telo u uzdužnoj osi, kao što su trčanje, skokovi, kao i vežbe snage, dovode do pozitivnih efekata na mineralnu gustinu kostiju. Dakle, trening treba da bude usmeren na adaptaciju specifičnog dela tela koji je najpodložniji povredama, i treba da bude dovoljno intenzivan i da prevazilazi uobičajena opterećenja.

Ključne reči

koštani sistem; vežbanje; osteoporoza

Reference

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