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Srce i krvni sudovi
2013, vol. 32, br. 2, str. 110-120
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
doi:10.5937/siks1302110A


Miokardni mostovi - od slučajnog nalaza do miokardne ishemije
aKlinika za kardiologiju, Klinički centar Srbije, Beograd
bUniverzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet
cKlinika za kardiologiju, Klinički centar Srbije, Beograd + Univerzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet
dKlinika za kardiologiju, Klinički centar Srbije, Beograd + Univerzitet u Kragujevcu, Medicinski fakultet
eUniverzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet, Institut za anatomiju

e-adresa: teofilovski@med.bg.ac.rs

Projekat

Akutni koronarni sindrom: istraživanje vulnerabilnosti (plaka, krvi i miokarda), optimalno lečenje i određivanje prognostičkih faktora (MPNTR - 41022)

Sažetak

Ovaj revijalni članak razmatra najnovija saznanja o morfologiji, patofiziologiji, kliničkom značaju i lečenju miokardnog mosta. Miokardni most definisan je kao urođena (kongenitalna) anomalija toka epikardijalne koronarne arterije čija je osnovna karakteristika sistolna kompresija njenog intramiokardnog segmenta sa manjim ili većim stepenom funkcionalnog (dinamskog) suženja lumena. Miokardni most je najčešće lokalizovan u medijalnom segmentu leve prednje descedentne koronarne arterije. Iako se smatra da miokardni most uglavnom predstavlja benignu anatomsku varijaciju koronarne arterije, u poslednjih 20-ak godina objavljeno je više radova u kojima je ova anomalija na levoj prednjoj descedentnoj arteriji bila uzrok angine pektoris, akutnog koronarnog sindroma, infarkta miokarda, prolazne disfunkcije leve komore, poremećaja srčanog ritma, pa čak i iznenadne srčane smrti. Diskrepanca između kliničkih simptoma i znakova miokardne ishemije i angiografskog nalaza bila je posledica nerazumevanja morfoloških karakteristika miokardnog mosta i patofizioloških mehanizama koronarnog protoka kroz levu prednju descedentnu arteriju pod miokardnim mostom, ali i proksimalno i distalno od ove anomalije. Miokardni most može prouzrokovati ishemiju miokarda putem dva različita mehanizma. Jedan mehanizam je direktna sistolna kompresija intramuralnog segmenta leve prednje descedentne arterije koja dovodi do kasne relaksacije koronarne arterije i perzistentne redukcije lumena u sredini i na kraju dijastole, smanjenja rezerve koronarnog protoka i miokardne hipoperfuzije. Drugi mehanizam je razvoj aterosklerotskog plaka i stenoze u segmentu leve prednje descedentne arterije proksimalno od miokardnog mosta (predilekciono mesto) koji nastaje zbog hemodinamskih poremećaja prouzrokovanih retrogradnim tokom krvi u sistoli i stvaranjem područja niskog i oscilatornog shear stresa. Primenom novih invazivnih dijagnostičkih metoda u kardiologiji (kvantitativna koronarna angiografija, intravaskularni ultrazvuk, intrakoronarni Doppler, frakciona rezerva protoka) otkrivene su nove morfološke karakteristike miokardnog mosta i značajni patofiziološki poremećaji koronarnog protoka u dijastoli. Medikamentna terapija (beta-blokatori, blokatori kalcijumskih kanala) ima glavnu ulogu u lečenju bolesnika sa simptomatskim miokardnim mostom. Nitrati su kontraindikovani jer povećavaju stepen sistolne kompresije intramiokardnog segmenta leve prednje descedentne arterije na koronarnoj angiografiji.

Ključne reči

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