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Pesticidi i fitomedicina
2012, vol. 27, br. 3, str. 189-201
jezik rada: engleski
pregledni članak
doi:10.2298/PIF1203189S

Suzbijanje kukuruzove zlatice Diabrotica virgifera virgifera
aInstitut za zaštitu bilja i životnu sredinu, Beograd
bInstitut za pesticide i zaštitu životne sredine, Beograd
cInstitut za proučavanje lekovitog bilja 'Dr JosiPančić', Beograd
dBelgrade
eInstitut za primenu nauke u poljoprivredi, Beograd

e-adresa: ivansivcev2011@gmail.com

Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46008: Development of integrated systems for pest management in plant production aiming to overcome resistance and improve food quality and safety

Sažetak

Kukuruzova zlatica je prvi put registrovana 1992. godine pored međunarodnog aerodroma Surčin. Širenje zlatice po teritoriji Srbije i porast gustine njene populacije je bilo brzo. Celokupna teritorija Srbije je naseljena u narednih nekoliko godina, pri čemu su se značajne štete javile na kukuruzu u ponovljenoj setvi. Sakupljeni su podaci o štetama na preko 140.000 ha kukuruza u periodu do 1999. godine. Posle 2000. i 2003. godine brojnost popualcije D.v. virgifera kao i broj oštećenih kukuruzovih polja je značajno smanjen zbog suše i masovne primene plodoreda. Kukuruzova zlatica ima jednu generaciju godišnje. Prezimljava u stadijumu jajeta. U klimatskim uslovima Srbije piljenje larvi počinje oko 15. maja. Najveći broj larvi se nalazi na korenu kukuruza oko 20. juna kada je ishrana larvi najintenzivnija. Zbog gubitka korena dolazi do poleganja biljaka. Odrasli insekti se javljaju krajem juna. Njihova brojnost raste tokom jula i dostiže maksimum krajem tog meseca. Od druge dekade avgusta brojnost imaga opada. Odrasli insekti se mogu naći u polju sve do prvih mrazeva. Larve se hrane na korenu ili se ubušuju u njega. U slučaju velikog napada koren može biti potpuno uništen i takve biljke već krajem juna poležu. U našim klimatskim i agrotehničkim uslovima odrasli insekti su sporadične štetočine. Oni mogu biti štetni u slučajevima kasnije setve ili postrne setve. Plodored je efikasan i najrasprostranjeniji način suzbijanja kukuruzove zlatice. Do sada se u Srbiji nisu javile štete na kukuruzu u plodoredu. Stoga se u kukuruzu u plodoredu ne primenjuju zaštitne mere. Više insekticida pokazuje dobre rezultate u suzbijanju kukuruzove zlatice kada se primenjuju sa setvom i imaju dozvolu za primenu u Srbiji. Međutim, zemljišni insekticidi nisu nikada do sada primenjeni na većim površinama za suzbijanje kukuruzove zlatice.

Ključne reči

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