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2007, br. 8, str. 9-28
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: neklasifikovan

Kula Nebojša sa delom priobalnog bedema i vodenom kapijom II
Afilijacija nije data

Sažetak

(ne postoji na srpskom)
According to the results of previous research, Nebojša tower was erected most probably after the failed Turkish siege of Belgrade in 1456, as part of extensive fortification works undertaken to renew the destroyed or damaged town fortifications. In that period, around 1460, a new fortification of the Eastern bailey with the cannon tower on the protruding corner - the present day Jakšića tower - and artillery position within the rampart. For the same purpose, a new big cannon tower - the present day Nebojša tower - was built at the entrance into the Danube port, on the bank of the river; the purpose of this tower was to protect with artillery fire the access to the lower town gates and the town port. The result of our research shows that the original appearance of the tower could be discerned. It is a multistorey building of a regular octagonal plan, and the diameter of the interior is around 8.5 meters. The dimensions of the outer sides are 2.9 to 3 meters. The outer wall surface was built with relatively regular cuts of lime stone, from a stone quarry near Belgrade. The inner wall surfaces in the tower were built in broken cut stone and occasional brick fragments. The foundation of the tower is a massive compact square slab 14.5 x 14.5 meters; this wall mass was 2 meters thick on the outer side and over 3 meters on the inside. The slab was built from broken stone bonded with compact mortar and reinforced with wooden rafters layered as horizontal lattice, probably with vertical links. In order to stabilize the soil below the foundation slab, there was a system of vertically pounded wooden staples of about 14 cm in diameter placed in series at a distance of about 40 cm. The octagonal over ground part of the tower was built on top of this foundation slab. Due to later alterations, the top storey of the tower has not been preserved in its original form and we can only presume the original height of the building of about 25 meters. The inside of the tower was divided by wooden floor structures into ground floor and four, or five upper floors. One floor was 4-4.5 meters high. One entered the defense gallery projected on profiled consoles from the level of the present day fourth storey. There were five consoles on each side, and one on each corner - altogether 48 consoles. They were probably linked with arches holding the cogged parapet. Judging by the visual sources from the late seventeenth century, this unpreserved storey had drawn-in and narrowed walls so that the floor of the walking path on the gallery leant mostly on the wall mass of the tower. Another storey stood above this one, with a conical roof most probably covered with lead. The former access to the tower was from the Bank side rampart, but the original entrance into the tower has not been preserved and there are no data on its exact position and level. It can only been presumed that it was at the same place as the present day one, which is of a more recent date. All of the storeys had canon apertures; however, owing to later alternations it is not possible to know the exact number of these opening. Canon apertures on the first and the second storey from the front have semicircular arches only half a meter wide, but the rest was covered with oak-beam ceilings. Canon apertures on the third storey have thin-brick arches 90 cm deep, and the beamed ceiling continues from there. Owing to continuous reconstructions, the performed investigations could not positively establish the former connection of the tower with the neighboring fortifications. The tower was erected as a free standing building and it was only later linked to the bank side rampart and the neighboring tower II. The mediaeval fortifications in this area were completed by the strengthening of the bank side rampart from the inner side with an earthen dyke and a parallel supporting wall towards the inner part of the Lower bourg. This intervention was made most probably during the renovation of the fortification after the Turks had captured the city in 1521. The renewed bank side rampart - and its remnants perceived in the vicinity of the Nebojša tower - could be considered the earliest example of rampart fortifications that followed the principles characteristic of later bastions of artillery fortifications. By its form and structure, the bank side Nebojša tower belongs to the oldest type of early artillery high towers. Its function was to prevent with its canons attacks from the river and from the direction of Ratno ostrvo ('War Island' in the confluence), and protect with lateral fire the main gate of the Lower bourg. Each storey most probably had only two canons which were moved to appropriate apertures and turned in proper directions. At the time when the tower was built, it was a significant achievement of the contemporary fort architecture. It was erected in order to defend the city from the Turks and it performed that function successfully for more than six decades. Within the defense system of Belgrade, this tower was, in a broader sense, the 'pomoerium or the forefront of Christianity' and it did stop on several occasions the progress of the Ottomans towards central Europe. The strategic importance of the tower was properly proven during the Turkish siege of Belgrade in 1521; after the capture of the city the tower was restored. The existing sources do not mention the fate of the tower in later periods particularly during the Austrian-Turkish wars in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century. In the first stages of reconstruction works on the Belgrade forts according to the principles of bastion artillery fortifications, directed by Andrea Cornaro in1693-1696, the bank side rampart was completely renewed and in many parts built again. On the line of the old mediaeval rampart, which was probably kept as such in the parts where it was least damaged, a new curtain was built in the height of 4.5 meters and with a cornice of semi-circular profile. The inner curtain was built at the same time, while the space of 12 meters between the curtains was filled with an earthen dyke. The remnants of older fortifications in this area were then covered with earth. The researched surface around the tower revealed a completely new curtain built along the line of the demolished bank side rampart. The older fortification in front of the entrance to the tower was probably spared at that time. There is no evidence about the works on the tower itself. The works on the new bank side rampart were still underway in 1696, but there is no reliable proof of the extent of the works completed before the Austrians captured the city in 1717. The complex of the Nebojša tower was thoroughly reconstructed during the extensive works on the reconstruction of the Belgrade fortress at the time of Austrian rule in Belgrade. This old mediaeval tower was old-fashioned at that time and out-dated as a fortification, but it was still kept and fitted into the new bastion fortifications. The upper part of the tower was demolished then and the uppermost, fourth storey, was built again, in bricks and with a wedged vault, above the former gallery on consoles. A shallow pyramidal foundation was formed from stone and mortar above the vault and covered with a tiled roof. A new entranced was modeled then in the present day form. All of the old canon apertures were closed, and new, bigger ones opened; four on each storey. They were walled in with bricks arched over with shallow segmented vaults. Although built as canon apertures, their original function is not clear, since the arrangement does not conform to the essential purpose of a fort. At the same time, works formerly begun by the Turks on the bank side rampart were continued. The external curtain was then extended over the semi-circular cornice for about 1.6 meters, i.e. to peak elevation of 78.06 meters, and strengthened by buttresses. The inner curtain was probably extended as well, making up a platform on the upper level with the earthen bulwark towards the outer side; after 1740 it was replaced by built canon screens. When Belgrade fortress was transformed into a bastion artillery fortification the Nebojša tower lost its former defense importance and in the second half of the eighteenth century - probably after the last Austrian-Turkish war 1789- 1791 - it changed its function. In was then turned into a dungeon for all those who presented danger to the Ottoman rule. In 1795 the captured janissary rebels were imprisoned there, then strangled and thrown into the Danube. A little later, in 1798, a famous Greek patriot was imprisoned and then executed. At the beginning of 1801 Belgrade metropolitan Metodije was also executed in the tower, as well as numerous prisoners during the janissary terror before the First Serbian Rising, and particularly at the time of fierce repression after the breakdown of the Rising 1813-1815, with mass executions in the tower or in front of it. A prisoner for six moths in 1815 was also Jevrem Obrenović, brother of Prince Miloš, and the first mayor of Belgrade. A gradual demilitarization of the Belgrade fortress began after WW I and was completed in 1946. In 1935, Nebojša tower with the surrounding area was handed over to the municipality of Belgrade. It was then that proper research and reconstruction could begin.

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