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Nasleđe
2001, br. 3, str. 9-37
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: građa

Kralj kapija Beogradske tvrđave
Afilijacija nije data

Sažetak

(ne postoji na srpskom)
Present complex of King gate represents the part of Belgrade fortress with the best preserved structures of military architecture from the Baroque epoch, that is the last decade of the 17th and first few decades of the 18th century (fig. 1 and 16-22). Abundant authentic, especially cartographic documentation from the archives in Vienna and Budapest (fig. 2-5) bear witness to the development of fortification in this location. Significant information were also obtained as a result of long-lasting archaeological investigations of the remains of medieval castle in the immediate vicinity. West side of the King gate complex (fig. 6) is closed by three bastions arranged in cascades at the edge of the cliff towards the Lower town. The bastions follow the outline of the medieval South rampart of the suburb. Large bastion I is by its southern curtain - face linked to the Southwestern rampart of the Upper town while the counterscarp in front of this rampart was linked to the lower bastion II. The gate itself was built into contemporary south wall not far from the spot where bastion I is linked to the rampart of the Upper town. Approach to the gate from the interior of the town is cut into the high embankments of the surrounding fortifications and underpinned due to the sloping of the terrain. From the east side there are the walls and dug in structures of Great fortress well, better known as 'Roman well' and from the opposite side there is high supporting wall towards the upper surface of bastion I. Position of King gate within the complex surrounding fortifications predetermined its structural form (fig. 10). The earlier part of the gate is an arched passage through the main rampart while the frontal part, smaller in space and obviously later, is functionally related to the counterscarp and the exit to the bastion II. From this later phase also dates the building for the guard on the upper surface of the rampart (fig. 11 -12). In front of the gate is a ditch now completely closed by the structure of the raveling with the bridge resting on the old piers. King raveling intended for the protection of the gate judging by its position and construction could be more precisely defined as semi-bastion. It is of triangular shape with two faces of which the west one leans on the small bastion III and the south one on the curtain of counterscarp in front of the Southwestern rampart of the Upper town (fig. 13). It has been situated on the communication that connected the Upper town with the riverbank and section of the Belgrade downtown by the Sava river. Because of that within its southern face there is an arched passage, i.e. gate of the Sava hillside as it is usually called (fig. 7-9). There was no bridge in front of that gate but the lateral side of the communication leading to the 'Great staircase' on the slope, next to the gate had been safeguarded by a caponier with loopholes constructed in the final phase, after 1740. The caponier at the same time had been used as wall support towards the ditch of the raveling (fig. 15). From the interior side of the gate there was a staircase leading on the upper surface of the raveling and further approaches the bridge across the ditch in front of King gate. This raveling represents most ancient detail of artillery fortifications of bastion type in the Belgrade fortress. It has been constructed in 1689 and completely restored between 1717 and 1721. It acquired its final shape after 1740 (fig. 14). The area around King gate damaged during the First World War has been arranged as park zone in 1928. Since 1960 on many occasions conservation works have been undertaken in this area and they are still not completed. Unfortunately need to restore and maintain ancient fortifications are in discord with possibilities and wishes of our time. In the unpredictable future we may possibly hope for some better opportunities.

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