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2003, vol. 32, br. 1, str. 73-81
Dostignuća i perspektive imunizacije
Gradski zavod za zaštitu zdravlja Beograd.
Sažetak
(ne postoji na srpskom)
The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the current achievements and perspectives of immunization in the world. It also presents the results of the EPI in Belgrade and compares the incidence of vaccine - preventable diseases in Belgrade, with the data from the pre-vaccination period. Immunization achievements in the world are presented by the history of vaccines development and manners of their organized use, until the introduction of global World Health Organization (WHO) Programs. These were Eradication of Smallpox (1956), EPI (1974), Scope of Surveillance (middle of the Eighties), and Elimination of Polio Program (1988). They all resulted in a creation (and harmonization) of national immunization programs throughout the world and a more defined aims of elimination and control of contagious diseases. Understanding the significance of financing immunization is viewed on the global level resulted in the formation of a Global Alliance for Immunization (GAVI). It has strategically and temporally - limited aims and targets, also represented in this paper. Realization of the EPI in Belgrade was shown in tables. Effectiveness of vaccination was expressed through the scope, in the period between 1992. and 2001. It was greatest for DPT (96.8%), OPV (96.6%) and MMR (92.1%). Results of the EPI in Belgrade are shown by comparison of the incidence of cases of vaccine - preventable diseases before the introduction of the product and these after its introduction, i.e. in the past five years. We managed to eliminate: diphtheria, tetanus neonatorum and polio, while the frequency of pertussis and morbilli, with incidence below 1/100.000 population, was decreased by more than 200 times for the former and more than 300 times for the latter. Frequency of parotitis was decreased by 15 times, rubella by four times. Speedy technological and scientific development in the area of vaccines in the future 10 - 15 years will have fundamentally changed the relationship of clinicians toward vaccines, both in the areas of prevention and therapy. We have shown a vision of the immunization schedule for the 21s' century, according to Plotkin. Immunization perspectives in the future are based on new technologies and manners of application. The future will bring multivalent vaccines, which will contain, in one dose, a large number of antigens; improvement of product immunogenity and decrease of adverse reactions in the already existing products. There will be new products to prevent contagious diseases, such as HSV, RSV, HCV, HIV, cytomegalovirus, rotavirus, adenoviruses, malaria, Lyme, HPV, schistosomiasis, shigellosis, streptococcus B group, conjugated meningococcal and pneumococcal vaccines. There will be vaccines for the prevention of non - contagious diseases (such as carcinoma, autoimmune diseases, diabetes etc.), therapeutic vaccines (HBV, HCV, HIV, carcinoma, allergies, Alzheimer disease, etc.).
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O članku

jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: stručni članak
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 02.06.2007.

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