Article metrics

  • citations in SCindeks: [2]
  • citations in CrossRef:0
  • citations in Google Scholar:[=>]
  • visits in previous 30 days:5
  • full-text downloads in 30 days:2
article: 1 from 1  
Back back to result list
Journal of Medical Biochemistry
2017, vol. 36, iss. 2, pp. 153-162
article language: English
document type: Original Paper
published on: 28/01/2020
PMC ID: PMC5471648
doi: 10.1515/jomb-2017-0006
Screening for chronic kidney disease in adult males in Vojvodina: A cross-sectional study
aUniversity of Novi Sad, Faculty of Medicine + Clinical Center of Vojvodina, Center for Laboratory Medicine, Novi Sad
bClinical Center of Vojvodina, Center for Laboratory Medicine, Novi Sad
cInstitute of Occupational Health, Novi Sad
dUniversity of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Science



This work was supported by grant No 114-451-1809/2014 approved by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development, Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia.
New products based on cereals and pseudocereals from organic production (MESTD - 46005)


Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most significant global health problems accompanied by numerous complicatons, with constant increase in the number of affected people. This number is much higher in early phases of disease and patients are mostly asymptomatic, so early detection of CKD is crucial. The aim was examination of the prevalence of CKD in the general population of males in Vojvodina, based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), and exploring the determinants and awareness of CKD. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 3060 male examinees from the general population, over 18 years of age, whose eGFR and ACR were calculated, first morning urine specimen examined, arterial blood pressure measured and body mass index calculated. Standard biochemistry methods determined creatinine, urea, uric acid and glucose serum concentrations as well as albumin and creatinine urine levels. Results: Prevalence of CKD in the adult male population is 7.9%, highest in men over 65 years of age (46.7%), while in the other age groups it is 3 .6 -1 2 .6 % . The largest number of examinees with a positive CKD marker suffer from arterial hypertension (HTA) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Only 1.3% of examinees with eGFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and/or ACR> 3 mg/mmol had been aware of positive CKD biomarkers. Conclusions: Obtained results show the prevalence of CKD in adult males is 7.9%, HTA and DM are the most important CKD risk factors and the level of CKD awareness is extremely low (1.3%) indicating the necessity for introduction of early stage disease recognition measures, including raising CKD awareness.



Barreto, S.M., Ladeira, R.M., Duncan, B.B., Schmidt, M.I., Lopes, A.A., Benseñor, I.M., Chor, D., Griep, R.H., Vidigal, P.G., Ribeiro, A.L., Lotufo, P.A., Mill, J.G. (2016) Chronic kidney disease among adult participants of the ELSA-Brasil cohort: association with race and socioeconomic position. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 70(4): 380-389
Brück, K., Stel, V.S., Gambaro, G., Hallan, S., Völzke, H., Ärnlöv, J., Kastarinen, M., Guessous, I., Vinhas, J., Stengel, B., Brenner, H., Chudek, J., Romundstad, S., Tomson, C., Gonzalez, A.O. (2016) CKD Prevalence Varies across the European General Population. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 27(7): 2135-2147
Chadban, S.J., Briganti, E.M., Kerr, P.G., Dunstan, D.W., Welborn, T.A., Zimmet, P.Z., Atkins, R.C. (2003) Prevalence of kidney damage in Australian adults: The AusDiab kidney study. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 14(7 Suppl 2): S131-8
Chrysohoou, C., Panagiotakos, D.B., Pitsavos, C., Skoumas, J., Zeimbekis, A., Kastorini, C.M., Stefanadis, C. (2010) Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet is Associated with Renal Function Among Healthy Adults: The ATTICA Study. Journal of Renal Nutrition, 20(3): 176-184
Cimbaljević, S., Šuvakov, S., Matić, M., Plješa-Ercegovac, M., Pekmezović, T., Radić, T., Ćorić, V., Damjanović, T., Dimković, N., Marković, R., Savić-Radojević, A., Simić, T. (2016) Association of GSTO1 and GSTO2 polymorphism with risk of end-stage renal disease development and patient survival. Journal of Medical Biochemistry, vol. 35, br. 3, str. 302-311
Constantini, L., Beanlands, H., Mccay, E., Cattran, D., Hladunewich, M., Francis, D. (2008) The self-management experience of people with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Nurs J, 35: 147-56
Coresh, J., Selvin, E., Stevens, L.A., Manzi, J., Kusek, J.W., Eggers, P., van Lente, F., Levey, A.S. (2007) Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the United States. JAMA, 298(17): 2038-47
Delanaye, P., Cavalier, E., Delanghe, C.J.P.J.R. (2014) Calibration and precision of serum creatinine and plasma cystatin C measurement: impact on the estimation of glomerular filtration rate. J Nephrol, 27: 467-75
Djukanović, L., Lezaić, V., Dimković, N., Peruničić, P.G., Bukvić, D., Bajčetić, S., Pavlović, J., Bontić, A., Zec, N., Momčilović, D., Stojanović, M. (2012) Early detection of chronic kidney disease: collaboration of Belgrade nephrologists and primary care physicians. Nefrología, 32(1): 59-66
Fraser, S.D.S., Aitken, G., Taal, M.W., Mindell, J.S., Moon, G., Day, J., o'Donoghue Donal,, Roderick, P.J. (2015) Exploration of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence Estimates Using New Measures of Kidney Function in the Health Survey for England. PLoS One, 10(2): e0118676
Friedman, A.N. (2004) High-protein diets: Potential effects on the kidney in renal health and disease. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 44(6): 950-962
Fujibayashi, K., Fukuda, H., Yokokawa, H., Haniu, T., Oka, F., Ooike, M., Gunji, T., Sasabe, N., Okumura, M., Iijima, K., Hisaoka, T., Isonuma, H. (2012) Associations between Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors and Proteinuria and the Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR). Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, 19(10): 932-940
Hallan, S.I., Coresh, J., Astor, B.C., Åsberg, A., Powe, N.R., Romundstad, S., Hallan, H.A., Lydersen, S., Holmen, J. (2006) International Comparison of the Relationship of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevalence and ESRD Risk. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 17(8): 2275-2284
Imai, E., Horio, M., Watanabe, T., Iseki, K., Yamagata, K., Hara, S., i dr. (2009) Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the Japanese general population. Clin Exp Nephrol, 13: 621-30
KDIGO (2012) Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease. Kidney Int Suppl, 3: 1-136
Levey, A.S., Stevens, L.A., Schmid, C.H., Zhang, Y.L., Castro, A.F., Feldman, H.I., Kusek, J.W., Eggers, P., van Lente, F., Greene, T. (2009) A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Annals of internal medicine, 150(9): 604-12
Levey, A.S., Eckardt, K.U., Tsukamoto, Y., Levin, A., Coresh, J., Rossert, J., Zeeuw, D.D.E., Hostetter, T.H., Lameire, N., Eknoyan, G. (2005) Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease: A position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney International, 67(6): 2089-2100
Mann, J.F., Gerstein, H.C., Pogue, J., Bosch, J., Yusuf, S. (2001) Renal insufficiency as a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes and the impact of ramipril: The HOPE randomized trial. Ann Intern Med, 134(8): 629-36
Marinković, M., Ilić, N., Đokić, D., Andrejević, V., Damjanović, G., Samardžić, G., Tufegdžić, S., Vučić-Janković, M. (2014) Prevalencija hipertenzije kod odraslih u Šumadiji - unakrsno istraživanje. Vojnosanitetski pregled, vol. 71, br. 3, str. 245-250
Muntner, P., He, J., Hamm, L., Loria, C., Whelton, P.K. (2002) Renal insufficiency and subsequent death resulting from cardiovascular disease in the United States. J Am Soc Nephrol, 13(3): 745-53
Murphree, D.D., Thelen, S.M. (2010) Chronic Kidney Disease in Primary Care. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 23(4): 542-550
Navaneethan, S.D., Schold, J.D., Arrigain, S., Kirwan, J.P., Nally, J.V. (2016) Body mass index and causes of death in chronic kidney disease. Kidney International, 89(3): 675-682
Otero, A., de Francisco, A., Gayoso, P., Garcia, F. (2010) Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Spain: Results of the EPIRCE study. Nefrologia, 30: 78-86
Paripović, A., Stajić, N., Putnik, J., Bogdanović, R. (2012) Hronična bolest bubrega tokom dvanaestogodišnjeg perioda u ustanovi tercijarnog nivoa zdravstvene zaštite. Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo, vol. 140, br. 5-6, str. 313-320
Pereira, E.R.S., Pereira, A.D.C., Andrade, G.B.D., Naghettini, A.V., Pinto, F.K.M.S., Batista, S.R., Marques, S.M. (2016) Prevalence of chronic renal disease in adults attended by the family health strategy. Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia, 38(1): 22-30
Piepoli, M.F., Hoes, A.W., Agewall, S., Albus, C., Brotons, C., Catapano, A.L., i dr. (2016) 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by represe. Eur Heart J, Authors/Task Force Members; May 23; pii: ehw106
Ponte, B., Pruijm, M., Marques-Vidal, P., Martin, P., Burnier, M., Paccaud, F., Waeber, G., Vollenweider, P., Bochud, M. (2013) Determinants and burden of chronic kidney disease in the population-based CoLaus study: A cross-sectional analysis. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 28(9): 2329-2339
Qaseem, A., Hopkins, R., Sweet, D., Starkey, M., Shekelle, P. (2013) Screening, monitoring, and treatment of stage 1 to 3 chronic kidney disease: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med, 159: 835-47
Ritz, E., Rychlik, I., Locatelli, F., Halimi, S. (1999) End-stage renal failure in type 2 diabetes: A medical catastrophe of worldwide dimensions. Am J Kidney Dis, 34(5): 795-808
Singh, A., Farag, Y., Mittal, B., Karai, S.K., Reddy, S.R.K., Acharya, V.N., i dr. (2013) Epidemiology and risk factors of chronic kidney disease in India-results from the SEEK (Screening and Early Evaluation of Kidney Disease) study. BMC Nephrology, 14: 114-23
Sopić, M., Joksić, J., Spasojević-Kalimanovska, V., Bogavac-Stanojević, N., Simić-Ogrizović, S., Kravljača, M., Jelić-Ivanović, Z. (2016) Downregulation of AdipoR1 is associated with increased circulating adiponectin levels in Serbian chronic kidney disease patients. Journal of Medical Biochemistry, vol. 35, br. 4, str. 436-442
Tout, D., Plantinga, L., Hsu, C.Y., Jordan, R., Burrows, N.R., Hedgeman, E., i dr. (2011) Chronic kidney disease awareness among individuals with clinical markers of kidney disfunction. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 6: 1838-44
Unal, B., Critchley, J.A., Capewell, S. (2005) Modeling the decline in coronary heart disease death in England and Wales, 1981-2000: comparing contributions from primary and secondary prevention. BMJ, 331: 614
Vasa, B.A.P.P.D., Iglar, K., Ph, M., Morrison, H., i dr. (2013) Prevalence estimates of chronic kidney disease in Canada: results of a nationally representative survey. CMAJ, 185: 417-23
Vôlzke, H. (2012) Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Bundesgesundheitsbl, 55(6-7): 790-794
Zdrojewski, Ł., Zdrojewski, T., Rutkowski, M., Bandosz, P., Król, E., Wyrzykowski, B., Rutkowski, B. (2016) Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a representative sample of the Polish population: results of the NATPOL 2011 survey. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 31(3): 433-439
Zhang, L., Wang, F., Wang, L., Wang, W., Liu, B., Liu, J., Chen, M., He, Q., Liao, Y., Yu, X., Chen, N., Zhang, N., Hu, Z., Liu, F., Hong, D., Ma, L., Liu, H., Zhou, X., Chen, J., Pan, L., Chen, W. (2012) Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in China: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet, 379(9818): 815-822
Zhang, Q., Rothenbacher, D. (2008) Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in population-based studies: Systematic review. BMC Public Health, 8(1): 117-117