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2011, vol. 65, br. 2, str. 5-15
Sila i snaga mišića opružača u zglobu kolena
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja

e-adresaolivera.knezevic@yahoo.com
Ključne reči: mišićna struktura; mišićna arhitektura; procena neuromišićne funkcije; trening sa opterećenjem
Sažetak
U proučavanju neuromišićne funkcije su, usled specifičnosti njihovih anatomskih karakteristika i značajne uloge koju imaju u kretanju, u velikoj meri zastupljeni mišići opružači u zglobu kolena. Predmet ovog pregleda su, dakle, jačina i snaga mišića opružača u zglobu kolena, načini procene njihove funkcije, međusobna uslovljenost jačine, snage i relacije koje ih opisuju, kao i uticaj različitih faktora na njihovo ispoljavanje (vežbe rastezanja, način izvođenja kretnih zadataka, biološka starost i drugo). S obzirom da m.quadriceps femoris (QF) čine 4 zasebna mišića, varijabilnost njihovih anatomskih karakteristika utiče na njihov doprinos u ispoljavanju jačine i snage, zavisno od vrste kretanja koje se izvodi. Kako je aktivan u velikom broju različitih aktivnosti, QF mora biti u mogućnosti da razvija velike jačine pri velikom i raznovrsnom opsegu dužina i brzina skraćenja mišića, uz različite obrasce razvijanja jačine i različite kapacitete za njeno generisanje unutar mišića (Blazevich et al., 2006). Postoje spekulacije da QF svoje maksimalne sposobnosti ispoljava pri opterećenjima bliskim sopstvenoj masi tela ili pak nižim (u rasterećenju) (Rahmani et al., 2001), što je vrlo blisko hipotezi maksimalnog dinamičkog izlaza (MDI) Jarića i Markovića (Jarić, & Marković 2009). Promene pod uticajem treninga ili biološke starosti različito se manifestuju na morfološke, fiziološke i neuralne karakteristike mišićnih glava QF, a time i na promene u jačini i snazi. Razumevanje problematike vezane za jačinu i snagu, kao sposobnosti koje su od velike važnosti za svakodnevni život, značajno je i za praksu, posebno sport i rehabilitaciju. Poboljšanje performansi u sportskim disciplinama u kojima su jačina i snaga mišića nogu determinante uspešnosti, ali i oporavak nakon povreda su u velikoj meri zavisni od rezultata istraživanja funkcije ovog mišića. Takođe, odgovarajući odnos jačine između mišića opružača i pregibača značajan je za stabilnosti zgloba kolena, tako da neuravnoteženost y jačini ove dve mišićne grupe može biti faktor rizika za nastajanje povreda.
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O članku

jezik rada: srpski, engleski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
DOI: 10.5937/fizkul1102005K
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 27.12.2011.
metod recenzije: dvostruko anoniman