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Zaštita materijala
2018, vol. 59, br. 3, str. 367-384
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
objavljeno: 06/09/2018
doi: 10.5937/zasmat1803367R
Creative Commons License 4.0
Farmaceutski preparati i opojne droge kao kontaminirajuće supstance površinskih i otpadnih voda
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Odsek/institut za prehrambenu tehnologiju i biohemiju

e-adresa: rajmi@agrif.bg.ac.rs

Projekat

Nove tehnologije za monitoring i zaštitu životnog okruženja od štetnih hemijskih supstanci i radijacionog opterećenja (MPNTR - 43009)

Sažetak

Prisustvo farmaceutskih preparata i opojnih droga u otpadnim, površinskim i podzemnim vodama predstavlja ozbiljan problem po zdravlje ljudi. Razlog za to je činjenica da ova jedinjenja poseduju biološku aktivnost, lako su mobilna, neka od njih imaju sposobnost bioakumulacije, a mnoga su i teško biorazgradiva. Dosadašnja istraživanja ukazuju da su glavni izvor farmaceutskih preparata u vodi, komunalne otpadne vode poreklom iz domaćinstava, bolnica i industrije. Farmaceutski preparati koji se javljaju u vodama su: analgetici i antiinflamantorna jedinjenja, antibiotici, β blokatori, hormoni, regulatori lipida, citostatici, kontrastna sredstva, opojne droge, denzifekciona sredstva. U sastav proizvoda za ličnu higijenu i kozmetiku ulaze jedinjenja koja poseduju sposobnost bioakumulacije, a mnoga pokazuju estrogene i endokrine efekte. Ispitivanja otpadnih voda u gradovima Zapadnog Balkana ukazuju da se opojne droge najviše konzumiraju u Zagrebu, Beogradu i Novom Sadu (kokain, amfetamin i MDMA). Zapažen je trend pojačanog korišćenja opojnih droga vikendom u proseku 10-20%. Glavni procesi koji određuju njihovu sudbinu u vodenim sredinama su biotransformacija, sorpcija, hemijska transformacija, fototransformacija i isparavanje.

Ključne reči

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