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Serbian Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
2013, vol. 14, br. 1, str. 3-8
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
doi:10.5937/sjecr14-3890


Izdržljivost u sportu
Univerzitet u Nišu, Fakultet fizičke kulture

Sažetak

Kardiorespiratorna izdržljivost ili aerobna izdržljivost je sposobnost čitavog tela da održava dugotrajnu fizičku aktivnost i uključuje relativno velike mišićne grupe. Mišićna izdržljivost predstavlja sposobnost mišića odnosno mišićne grupe da izvrši ponavljanje kontrakcije kroz period vremena dovoljan da izazove mišićni zamor ili sposobnost da održi specifični procenat maksimalne voljne kontrakcije u toku dužeg vremenskog perioda. Svaka ima jedinstven udeo u sportskim aktivnostima i svaka se razlikuje po svojoj važnosti, kod različitih sportista. Kardiorespiratorna izdržljivost se smatra najvažnijom komponentom fizičke pripremljenosti. Nizak kapacitet izdržljivosti vodi ka zamoru, čak i u sportovima i aktivnostima niže dinamike. Kao zlatni standard za ispitivanje kardiorespiratorne izdržljivosti smatra se kombinacija spiroergometrijskog testiranja (uz primenu adekvatnog protokola testiranja) i određivanja nivoa laktatnih pragova. Dobijeni parametri se zatim koriste za definisanje ciljeva treninga i izradu preciznog plana i programa treninga, kao i za naknadnu evaluaciju efekata treninga Mišićna izdržljivost je specifična za svaku mišićnu grupu, tip i brzinu kontrakcije. Zbog toga ne postoji univerzalna procena mišićne izdržljivosti celog tela. Za procenu mišićne izdržljivosti koriste se metode izokinetičke i izoinercijalne dinamometrije, kao i brojni terenski testovi. Razumevanje i praćenje izdržljivosti kod sportista omogućava izradu i korekciju individualnih zona trenažnog opterećenja u odgovarajućim ciklusima pripremnog perioda tokom predtakmičarske i takmičarske sezone. Postizanje i održavanje optimalnog stanja treniranosti treba shvatiti kao dinamički koncept koji zahteva stalno praćenje, primenom savremenih metoda funkcionalne dijagnostike sportista.

Ključne reči

izdržljivost; kardiorespiratorna; mišići; sportisti; trening

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