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Medicinski podmladak
2015, vol. 66, br. 2, str. 25-30
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
objavljeno: 27/10/2016
doi: 10.5937/medpodm1502025A
How social cognition deficits affect psychopathology: A neuroscientific approach
(naslov ne postoji na srpskom)
aKlinički centar Srbije, Klinika za psihijatriju, Beograd
bKlinički centar Srbije, Klinika za psihijatriju, Beograd + Univerzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet

Sažetak

Čovek je društveno biće. Za postizanje i očuvanje mentalnog zdravlja neophodno je imati očuvanu socijalnu kogniciju. Socijalna kognicija obuhvata skup mentalnih procesa koji čine osnovu socijalnih interakcija, a koji omogućavaju razumevanje ponašanja drugih ljudi, shvatanje značaja izraza njihovih lica, i procenu namera osoba iz okruženja. Ključne domene ovog složenog koncepta predstavljaju: teorija uma, opažanje socijalnih znakova, kauzalna atribucija, opažanje i procesuiranje emocija. Obradu informacija socijalno-emocionalnog konteksta karakteriše aktivacija amigdala, orbitofrontalnog i temporalnog korteksa, glavnih regiona takozvanog 'društvenog mozga', specijalizovanog za socijalne interakcije svojstvene ljudima. Značaj ispravnog opažanja i tumačenja socijalnih znakova, funkcija neophodnih za uspešnu socijalnu adaptaciju, dolazi do izražaja kada su ove sposobnosti narušene. Brojne psihijatrijske poremećaje prati deficit socijalne kognicije, a među njima ispadi su najpodrobnije ispitivani u grupi shizofrenija, depresivnom poremećaju, autizmu, itd. Zanimljivo je da sve više naučnih dokaza ukazuje da ovi ispadi imaju važnu ulogu u nastanku i održavanju određenih simptoma psihijatrijskih bolesti, kao i da predstavljaju glavni uzrok narušene opšte funkcionalnosti pacijenata. Jedan od najvažnijih ciljeva istraživanja u oblasti socijalnih neuronauka je obezbeđivanje terapijskih intervencija koje bi poboljšale socijalne veštine pacijenata, a time i njihovu funkcionalnost. U aktuelnom pregledu biće razmotreni specifični terapijski modaliteti čija je primena u dosadašnjoj literaturi najbolje proučena: trening socijalnih veština, psihofarmakološke intervencije, neinvazivne tehnike stimulacije mozga. Cilj ovog pregleda je prikaz savremenih saznanja o konceptu socijalne kognicije i njegovoj povezanosti sa psihopatologijom, kao i razmatranje terapijskih implikacija od značaja za kliničku praksu.

Ključne reči

socijalna kognicija; psihopatologija; terapijske implikacije

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