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Nasleđe
2008, br. 9, str. 155-178
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: istoriografski prilog
objavljeno: 14/01/2009
Delo arhitekte Vojina Simeonovića između dva svetska rata

Sažetak

(ne postoji na srpskom)
Early childhood and youth of architect Vojin Simeonović (1900-1978) were marked with decisive dramatic events - the Balkan and the First World War in which he took part, simultaneously continuing with his education. Among his many interests was also active participation in young people's sport organizations. His parallel career as a pilot was of primary importance as well. The end of his studies of architecture fell at the time of the second large world exhibition in Paris in 1925 - L' Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes - which represented a symbolic hallmark of the style between the two world wars, when most of Simeonović' work was done. After a spell of work within relatively narrow bounds of clichéd neoclassical repertoire at the architectural atelier of Aleksandar Djordjević, Simeonović began to work with architect Prljević who was a prominent modernist. The cooperation resulted in daring, modern designs for competitions, most of which were never carried out. Leading his own architectural bureau from 1932 to the outbreak of the Second World War provided an opportunity for the talented and responsible young architect to become an independent design engineer, which also included complicated work on the organization and oversight of construction. A pilot and an architect Vojin Simeonović belonged to Belgrade elite, enjoying the respect of his colleagues and the favour of cultural circles. His single realized project of a public residential building Aviation Club House, was a masterpiece - an exceptionally modern structure in contemporary European art deco style with a completely new concept of a façade. As for private buildings, similar in its modern conception and the façade is the advocate Nedeljković' house. In his opus predominate designs for private houses, family mansions, mostly in academic neoclassical spirit both in the centre and outside the narrow city territory of Belgrade. The following deserve mention: Olga Krsmanović' Villa Milutin Skakaljević' Villa, Zora Andjelković's Building, Rade Petrović' Villa, Nikola Uzunović' Villa, Rista Milutinović' Villa, Borivoje Kratohvil's Villa, Ljubiša Perišić' Villa as well as the unrealized projects for Djordje Mos, Zdenko Pilc and Mihajlo Gluščević' Villa, as well as the Dušan Miljković's Building. In his work traditional treatment of bases and facades is predominant, which indicates that his commissioners were mostly conservative. Simeonović often applied stylized neo-classicism, that is, a certain academic repertoire, but with austere, measured and considered relation of elements. The architect reduced eclectic method of combining to a certain classicistic scheme after the model of European academic examples especially those of French noblemen' architecture, XVIII and XIX century castles and villas. As an academicist, Simeonović was close to architects Milutin Borisavljević, Aleksandar Djordjević, Josif Najman, Djordje Djordjević, Branislav Marinković, Bogdan Nestorović, Dragoslav Radisavljević and others whose work was in the style of 'French renaissance' or baroque neo-classicism. His villas typify academic luxurious city houses, with sumptuous decorative facades and interiors, among which stands out the villa of merchant Rada Petrović, in Senjak. Apart from traditional buildings Simeonović also designed some which break away from academic principles in terms of modernization of the classicistic pattern; however, these were mostly unrealized projects for private houses. His deviation from the postulates of academism - using it as a basis for further creation and modernization mainly involve clarification and stylization with the introduction of some new elements and relations (the emphasis placed on certain decorative architectural elements such as protruding eaves, the introduction of new proportions of the openings - widening them, coupled with the use of windows of varying sizes and shapes - rectangular, arched circular). He introduced qualitative changes in the zoning of composition. This was a step forward compared to academism, completely unlike decadent and ungainly constructions by certain architects who overburdened the composition with architectural elements. In such creative moves, Simeonović is similar to architects D.M. Leko, the Krstić brothers, M. Zloković and B. Marinković. All structures by Vojin Simeonović have floor construction of reinforced concrete, modern installations and facades covered with several types of artificial stone. In keeping with the prevailing practice in Belgrade architecture, the façade was the focus of attention, although the architect also took care regarding the functionality of space as well as decorative interior design. Architect Vojin Simeonović developed personal style, a moderate, clear-cut variant of academic classicism and historism, without prominent eclectic methods. However, some of his works exhibit elements and principles of European Art Deco style - a decorative variant of modernism. His architecture remained faithful to the ideal of aesthetic effect of architecture during the period of pure modernism in Belgrade architecture. The realization of his two key projects, his two monumental interwar buildings - the Aviation Club House and the Nedeljković House, together with some unrealized projects put him among the most important Serbian architects of the XX century who by their originality and certain exploratory tendencies contributed to the richness and variety of architecture as well as to the formation of modern look and spirit of Belgrade.

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