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Nasleđe
2005, br. 6, str. 213-226
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: neklasifikovan
Tragovi jedne beogradske nekropole 17. veka
Afilijacija nije data

Sažetak

(ne postoji na srpskom)
Among the many vanished aspects of Belgrade's urban development are the city's necropolises-cemeteries, both medieval and those from the period of Ottoman rule. The city's recurrent exposure to the ravages of war and especially, its southward expansion from its medieval fortified core - on the site of the present-day Fortress - along the Danube and Sava slopes, erased almost all traces of the sites that had served as burial-grounds of the citizens of Belgrade. Some knowledge about the former cemeteries is offered by the surviving cartographic evidence dating to the end of the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries. But gravemarkers have been rarely found; and almost as a rule, those were fragmented and dislocated Turkish nisans. Grave-markers of the Christian citizens have not held much interest for scholars, nor have they been registered in the archaeological material so far. Important insights into that aspect of Belgrade's urban heritage have been provided by the discovery of a whole group of gravestone fragments built into the bastions of the Belgrade Fortress. Those are partially reworked stone blocks built into the face of the rampart. The exact location of find is the section of the curtain-wall with a semicircular-profiled cornice whose construction is reliably dated to 1693-96. Another two gravestones have been registered above the cornice, in the section added between 1718 and 1721. Of more than 30 pieces registered so far, 25 have been catalogued on this occasion. The origin of the gravestones is directly linked with the question of the source of the material used in the first stage of the Turkish rebuilding of the fortress, directed by the captured Venetian architect Andrea Cornaro. It has been noted that some rampart walls built at the time i.e. immediately after 1693, contain the reused spolia from some demolished Belgrade structures, which allows the assumption that they came from a Christian cemetery. From what is known of the topography of seventeenth-century Belgrade, which the author of this paper has scrupulously studied, it may be quite reliably assumed that the reused gravestones came from the Serbian cemetery on the Sava slope. The fact that they constitute a coherent group in terms of typology and date suggests a single cemetery as their source. The relatively high proportion of gravestones with inscriptions (15 %) appears to be quite indicative despite fragmentation. As the examined gravestones from sixteenth- and seventeenth-century rural cemeteries in south-western Serbia bear inscriptions quite rarely, those from Belgrade seem to reflect a more educated, apparently urban, population. Viewed in general and in conjunction with the Sava slope location, for the time being they remain solitary witnesses to a seventeenth-century Serbian urban cemetery. The beginning of the cemetery is difficult to date only by the gravestones present at the moment of its destruction. The foundation of the Sava slope cemetery may be connected with the growth, about 1536, of Serbian mahalles "by the imperial granaries" and the subsequent construction of St Michael's church on the site of the present-day Cathedral Church. During the war that began in 1688, and the turbulent 1690s, the Serbian cemetery on the Sava slope was devastated and probably abandoned for a time. And yet, to judge from the spolia built into the younger section of the north-western rampart above the cornice, its use was resumed. This is suggested by two gravestones (cat. nos 2 and 9) that are typologically identical with the older spolia and one of which is dated to 1702 by the surviving inscription. Obviously, even after the Austrian recapture of Belgrade in 1717 the old Serbian cemetery on the Sava slope continued to be the source of building material for the Fortress. At first the rest of the surviving gravestones were taken away. Somewhat later, the site of the former Serbian cemetery was almost completely destroyed by the construction of the bastioned trace of the city's new artillery fortifications.

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