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2022, vol. 9, br. 1, str. 43-54
Razvoj olimpijskog obrazovanja u istorijskom aspektu
aKyiv Boris Grinchenko University, Ukraine
bUniverzitet u Nišu, Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja

e-adresaAlgis6274@hotmail.com
Ključne reči: fizičko vaspitanje u sport; olimpijsko vaspitanje; istorijski razvojni proces; savremeno ljudsko društvo
Sažetak
Materijali ovog članka predstavljaju podatke dobijene iz brojnih izvora naučnih informacija, a posvećeni su proučavanju nekih faktora koji su uticali na razvoj olimpijskog obrazovanja u istorijskom aspektu. Ha osnovu analize savremenih domaćih i stranih književnih izvora, utemeljen je zaključak da se proces istorijskog razvoja sistema olimpijskog obrazovanja u mnogim zemljama sveta odvijao na različite načine. Potreba za sistematizacijom informacija vezanih za ovu oblast naučnoistraživačkog rada izazvana je potrebom proučavanja obrazaca razvoja olimpijskog obrazovanja u različitim zemljama u cilju njegovog unapređenja na globalnom nivou. Mnogi naučnici koji rade u oblasti fizičkog vaspitanja i sporta došli su do zaključka da olimpijsko obrazovanje može imati značajan uticaj na neke oblasti života ljudi u savremenom društvu. Važno je da u obrazovanju i obuci različitih kategorija specijalista za oblast fizičkog vaspitanja i sporta (sportisti, treneri, instruktori, rehabilitatori) kurs o olimpijskom obrazovanju igra izuzetno važnu ulogu. Ali za duboko razumevanje pitanja kakva je suština modernog sistema olimpijskog obrazovanja, potrebno je dobro znati kako se on unapređivao tokom istorijskog razvoja čovečanstva. Proučavanju ove problematike posvećen je poseban istraživački rad, koji je trajao dve i no godine, na osnovu čijih rezultata je i pripremljen ovaj članak.

Introduction

In the course of historical progress, there was an expansion of knowledge about the potential capabilities of the human body. Since the period of ancient Greece and the birth of the Olympic movement, people have been interested in the question of the limits of a person's physical capabilities in performing certain types of motor activity [1].

This question was also of interest to scientists working in the field of sciences about the human body. It was extremely important, because it gave an answer to the question about the potential of people, in particular, in the field of production activities.

Focusing on knowledge about the potential physical capabilities of a person, a system of physical education was formed for different categories of the population in order to achieve harmony in the physical development of people [2].

This question has turned into a serious scientific problem, for the solution of which it was necessary to combine the efforts of the best specialists from the field of physiology, pedagogy and medicine.

However, it should be recognized that the gradual approach to the moment of a full solution to this problem in the course of the historical development of society was slow and not the same in different countries.

On the way to solving the problem, there were many difficulties, depending on the level of economic development of countries, the characteristics of the social, religious and political status of the population.

This situation necessitated the creation of a common strategy for all countries regarding the ways of implementing its main provisions into practical activities for organizing the process of physical education.

The main reason for the uneven distribution of this theory within many states was the differences in the levels of their technical, economic and scientific development.

Thus, in the course of the historical process, a doctrine was formed that described the laws of physical development for those people who live in different material and social conditions.

In this regard, an interesting example is the comparison of features related to the process, how the doctrine of human potentialities, which formed the basis of the Olympic education system, developed in different regions of our planet, in particular in those territories where the modern states of Serbia and Ukraine are located.

The results of a detailed analysis of the data, which are presented in many modern scientific sources of information, confirm the conviction that even today the question of the importance of Olympic education remains extremely important for people.

Throughout the development of our society many famous scientists, living in different countries around the world, devoted their works to the study of how the Olympic education affects various aspects of human life [3].

In the course of fundamental research, very interesting and important results were obtained by teams of certain scientific institutions and individual scientists who were studying how and in what way Olympic education affects the level of physical and mental health of people.

According to some well-known scientists who have achieved tremendous success in studying the influence of factors such as living conditions and Olympic education on the state of physical and mental health of people, their level of cultural development and the breadth of their worldview, it is necessary to continue the process of improving the global system of Olympic education in the interests of all humanity [4].

But despite significant achievements in applying the principles of Olympic education to improve the quality of life among modern people, it should be recognized that this theory requires constant improvement and full adaptation to the real conditions of existence in society.

For this reason, it is necessary to continue research in the direction of further improvement of the system of Olympic education, intended for different categories of the population. This task in our time is intriguing for many scientists, including us, which is confirmed by the creation of this scientific article [5].

Methods

In the course of this research work, the following scientific methods were applied.

At the initial stage of our work, the method of studying domestic and foreign scientific literature was applied. This made it possible to collect a large number of working materials related to this scientific problem.

Then we applied the method of historical analysis of the problem, which allowed us to evaluate the features characteristic of the formation processes in the system of Olympic education in the course of the historical development of society.

The review method allowed us to obtain a general description of the dynamics in the historical course of improving the Olympic movement as a whole.

The method of expert assessments was applied by us in order to study the opinions of leading scientists regarding the key aspects of the problem under study.

Finally, the method of statistical processing of the obtained data allowed us to generalize the results of the study and make sure that these data are reliable.

It should be noted that the collection and study of materials regarding this scientific problem took a lot of time and lasted for the period from May 2020 to November 2021.

All data obtained were statically processed using modern mathematical methods adapted for the field of physical education and sports in a historical aspect.

Comparison of the results obtained in the analysis of the features characteristic of the development process in Olympic education in different historical periods allowed us to establish general trends that are characteristic of the entire process, as well as to predict possible scenarios for its further development.

All the methods chosen for this study were selected in such a way that they could complement each other and be as rational as possible in terms of the appropriateness of their application.

From a scientific point of view, it would be useful in the future to conduct a detailed study of the development trends of Olympic education in other regions of the world.

Results

In many countries of the world, as well as in Serbia and Ukraine, the development of Olympic education was associated with many specific difficulties.

However, it can be concluded that the Olympic education among residents in most countries was closely related to the development of the Olympic movement in society and the dissemination of the ideas and principles of Olympism among the population.

This is confirmed by numerous facts recorded in archival documents and stored in the relevant funds.

The fact is that in the course of historical development of our society, the principles of the Olympic movement have been transformed and adapted to the way of thinking that is characteristic for the majority of people living in society.

According to generally accepted concepts, Olympic education is a pedagogical process of introducing people to the ideas, ideals and values of the Olympic movement, the formation of Olympic worldview, Olympic thinking and Olympic culture of a person.

The history of the development of the Olympic movement in ancient times was very complex and quite unpredictable.

The strong influence of religious prejudice has left a significant imprint on the Olympic movement and Olympic education in many countries of Europe and Asia.

Church ideology propagated as an ideal such a type of person who follows an ascetic way of life, keeps himself in a black body, denies himself in many ways and constantly raises his prayers to heaven in the name of the coming grace.

Such a public conviction did not fully correspond to the ideal of a physically developed person, systematically improving his body through physical exercises and striving to achieve a state of his harmonious physical development.

Therefore, the Olympic movement, which originated in ancient Greece, was in a state of stagnation during the middle Ages, and in some countries even banned.

But these dark times have passed and, thanks to the initiative of the French public figure Pierre Coubertin, the era of the revival of the Olympic movement has begun, first in Europe, and then throughout the world.

And, of course, a much more complete implementation of the ideas and plans of the Olympic movement became possible in our time, due to the fact that it was in this historical period of time that the rapid development of technologies necessary for the successful implementation of such plans took place.

It would be fair to admit that the most active development of technologies related to the Olympic movement and Olympic education took place in those countries in which optimal conditions for scientific and technological progress were created.

As a result of the activities of Pierre de Coubertin, the international congress, held in Paris on June 16, 1894, unanimously adopted a proposal to form an international Olympic committee. And a little later, on April 6, 1896, the first Olympic Games of the modern era were held in Athens.

Starting from that moment, a new era opened in the Olympic movement, when outstanding athletes became as famous and popular as major political figures, famous scientists and artists, and the competitions themselves became events of international importance.

By Olympism we mean a special state of mind that is based on the principles of equality of sports, which is international and democratic.

This is a special philosophy of life, which exalts and unites into a single concept of the high quality of the state of the human body, as well as his mind and will.

The main goal of the Olympic Games is to make a valuable contribution to the creation of a peaceful coexistence of peoples by educating young people through sports without any discrimination, as well as in the spirit of friendship, solidarity and fair sports.

At the 1912 Olympic Games in Stockholm, Yugoslavia was represented by the Serbian team. In 1920-1988 as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (as part of the current Croatia, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia, Montenegro).

In 1992, in agreement with the IOC, the athletes of Yugoslavia (as part of Serbia and Montenegro) acted as independent participants (IOP). In 2000-2004 as Yugoslavia (as part of Serbia and Montenegro).

After World War II, Yugoslavia became a republic: at the 1948, 1952, 1956 and 1960 Games, Olympians from the People's Republic of Serbia competed in the national team of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia.

Starting from the 1964 Games and until the 1992 Winter Games - in the national team of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. At the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, due to sanctions imposed on Yugoslavia, Serbian athletes were forced to compete as independent Olympic competitors under the Olympic flag.

Having missed the 1994 Winter Games, Serbia returned to the Olympics in 1996 as part of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was renamed in 2003 and competed as Serbia and Montenegro at the 2004 and 2006 Games.

In 2006, the Union of Serbia and Montenegro collapsed. Only 96 years later, at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, Serbia again took an independent part.

Ukraine took part in the Olympic Games for the first time as a separate team in 1994 at the Winter Games in Lillehammer, and since then has been taking part in all summer and winter games.

Prior to that, Ukrainian athletes participated in the USSR national team from 1952 to 1988, and after the independence of Ukraine, in 1992, as part of the United Team.

Over the years of its existence, the Ukrainian team has won 139 medals at the Summer Games and 8 at the Winter Games.

The National Olympic Committee of Ukraine was formed in 1990 and recognized by the International Olympic Committee in 1993.

In our time, just as in the distant past, leading experts in the field of physical education and sports confirm the idea that systematic practice of any kind of sports can have both positive and negative effects on a person.

If any person systematically goes in for sports, then this circumstance can contribute to the development in his mind of both the noblest feelings and the basest motives.

Adherence to sports can contribute to the development in a person's soul of both disinterestedness and greed, they can contribute to the development of a state of both generosity and venality, educate in a person both courage and impiety.

Finally, the development and improvement of the physical qualities of a person through sports can be used either to maintain peace, or to prepare for war.

The following principles of the Olympic movement are fundamental.

Olympic movement is a philosophy of life that elevates and unites the virtues of the body, will, and mind into a single whole.

The Olympic Movement connects sports with culture and education, and promotes the creation of the right way of life, which is based on the joy of overcoming difficulties [6].

The main goal of the Olympic Movement is to call sport to the harmonious development of all people and to contribute to the creation of a peaceful society that cares about the preservation of human dignity.

In addition, the Olympic movement and Olympic education contribute to strengthening the educational value of a positive example, as well as maintaining a high level of social responsibility and respect for the basic ethical principles of a person.

The modern Olympic Movement is a coordinated, organized, universal and permanent activity of all individuals and organizations that are inspired by universal human values [7].

The rights and freedoms provided for by the Olympic Charter ensure the complete absence of any discrimination on racial, linguistic, religious and political grounds.

The principles of the Olympic Movement do not allow for the differentiation of people into categories on the basis of the colour of their skin, their gender, the presence of an alternative opinion, their national or social origin, as well as the fact of owning property or other status.

Recognizing the fact that sports activities are carried out in the conditions of the realities of modern society, all structural organizations associated with the Olympic movement should have sufficient rights and corresponding obligations that are inherent to autonomous organizations [8].

Belonging to the Olympic Movement requires adherence to the provisions of the Olympic Charter and recognition by the International Olympic Committee.

Discussion

The fact of the exceptional importance of the Olympic movement and Olympic education for the process of developing a positive life stereotype among young people is beyond doubt and is confirmed by the results of numerous scientific studies conducted in different countries of the world.

This statement is also confirmed by the fact that in those countries of the world where the government pays sufficient attention to the problem of improving the system of Olympic education for various categories of the population (including Serbia and Ukraine), there is a fairly high level of culture and sports training of young people.

It should also be noted that in the course of the historical development of the Olympic movement, its special varieties were formed, which allow those contingents of people who, due to their state of health, could not previously take part in sports competitions to actively join this movement.

Thus, the Paralympics and Deaflympic movements were formed, thanks to the presence of which athletes with disabilities, as well as the deaf and even the blind began to take an active part in sports events.

Previously, it was difficult to imagine that blind people can play football, for example.

Now this is quite possible due to the fact that special conditions have been created for athletes with visual impairments, special rules of the game have been developed and special sports equipment has been designed.

In particular, for blind athletes, the size of the sports field was significantly reduced, the width of the football goal was greatly increased, and a specially designed ball makes a sound during its flight, thanks to which athletes can determine its position by ear, as well as the direction and speed of its movement.

The same applies to the organization of sports competitions in which athletes with hearing impairment take part.

In this case, a special system of light signals has been developed for deaf athletes and special equipment is used, with the help of which referees can easily and naturally control the actions of athletes and evaluate their sports achievements.

Currently, some scientists are developing the theoretical foundations of a new subspecies of the Olympic movement, which they call the self-Olympic movement.

This is a special area of sports activity, designed for people with functional health disorders and who, for this reason, do not have the opportunity to engage in intense sports training.

Due to the fact that this direction of the Olympic movement is currently still in the state of development, we cannot describe its details, but in its essence it is a system of physical training carried out by the person himself.

As a result of the correct execution of special therapeutic and preventive exercises, which are carried out under medical supervision, functional disorders in the human body are corrected and it achieves more and more new results in various types of physical activity.

Conclusion

The information that was collected in the course of this study gives grounds for the following conclusions:

  1. The international Olympic movement and Olympic education play an extremely important role in the moral, spiritual and physical development of modern youth.

  2. The effectiveness of the process on which the further promotion of a healthy lifestyle depends, as well as the optimal algorithm of motor activity for all categories of young people, is directly dependent on the degree of involvement in the Olympic movement.

  3. One of the promising directions for improving the system of Olympic education, which is intended for persons with functional health disorders, is the scientific substantiation and development of the Self- Olympic system.

References

1.Živanović N, Antala B, Pantelić-Babić K. The History of Physical Education in Europe, Book 1-2. Leposavić, Serbia: FIEP Europe - History of Physical Education and Sport Section, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport. 2015.
2.Castro-Piñero J, Laurson KR, Artero EG, Ortega FB, Labayen I, Ruperez AI, et al. Muscle strength field-based tests to identify European adolescents at risk of metabolic syndrome: The HELENA study. Journal of scienceand medicine in sport. 2019;22(8):929-934.
3.Gaintza Z, Castro V. Physical education sessions in secondary school: attitudes towards the inclusion of students with disabilities. Journal of Physical Education and Sport. 2020;20(1):2014-2021. [Crossref]
4.Boterberg S, Warreyn P. Making sense of it all: The impact of sensory processing sensitivity on daily functioning of children. Personality and Individual Differences. 2016;92:80-86.
5.Ivashchenko S. Historical preconditions of the origin of self-Olympic direction of physical culture in Ukraine. Physical Education and Sport through the Centuries. 2019;5(2):36-42.
6.Roskam I, Raes MH, Mikolajczak M. Exhausted Parents: Development and Preliminary Validation of the Parental Burnout Inventory. Front Psychol. 2017;8:163-178.
7.Colella D, Bellantonio S, Monacis D. Interventions for the promotion of motor activities: Assessment of motor performance in relation to perceived self-efficacy and enjoyment. Italian Journal of Educational Research. 2020;25:49-62.
8.Živanović N, Milošević Z. Physical culture between rationalism and Theo anthropocentrism. Physical education and sport through the centuries. 2018;5(2):5-16.
Reference
Boterberg, S., Warreyn, P. (2016) Making sense of it all: The impact of sensory processing sensitivity on daily functioning of children. Personality and Individual Differences, 92: 80-86
Castro-Piñero, J., Laurson, K.R., Artero, E.G., Ortega, F.B., Labayen, I., Ruperez, A.I., Zaqout, M., Manios, Y., Vanhelst, J., Marcos, A., Polito, A., Gonzalez-Gross, M., Widhalm, K., Moreno, L.A. (2019) Muscle strength field-based tests to identify European adolescents at risk of metabolic syndrome: The HELENA study. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22(8): 929-934
Colella, D., Bellantonio, S., Monacis, D. (2020) Interventions for the promotion of motor activities: Assessment of motor performance in relation to perceived self-efficacy and enjoyment. Italian Journal of Educational Research, 25: 49-62
Gaintza, Z., Castro, V. (2020) Physical education sessions in secondary school: attitudes towards the inclusion of students with disabilities. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 20(1): 2014-2021
Ivashchenko, S. (2019) Historical preconditions of the origin of self-Olympic direction of physical culture in Ukraine. Fizičko vaspitanje i sport kroz vekove, vol. 6, br. 2, str. 24-33
Roskam, I., Raes, M.H., Mikolajczak, M. (2017) Exhausted Parents: Development and Preliminary Validation of the Parental Burnout Inventory. Frontiers in Psychology, 8: 163-178
Živanovć, N., Antala, B., Pantelić-Babić, K. (2015) The History of Physical Education in Europe. Leposavić, Serbia: FIEP Europe-History of Physical Education and Sport Section, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Book 1-2
Živanović, N., Milošević, Z. (2018) Physical culture between rationalism and theoanthropocentrism. Fizičko vaspitanje i sport kroz vekove, vol. 5, br. 2, str. 5-16
 

O članku

jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
DOI: 10.5937/spes2201043I
primljen: 08.12.2021.
prihvaćen: 18.02.2022.
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 18.08.2022.

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