Article metrics

  • citations in SCindeks: [1]
  • citations in CrossRef:[3]
  • citations in Google Scholar:[=>]
  • visits in previous 30 days:16
  • full-text downloads in 30 days:11
article: 5 from 34  
Back back to result list
FME Transactions
2018, vol. 46, iss. 1, pp. 70-79
article language: English
document type: unclassified
Glass foams produced from glass and yerba mate (Ilex paraguarinensis) waste
Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Department of Materials Engineering, Brazil



In this study, compositions containing green glass bottles and desiccated and crushed yerba mate (Ilex paraguarinensis) of different mass fractions (10-30%) were prepared to obtain glass foams for thermal insulation purposes. These compositions were uniaxially pressed (at 40 MPa), and the compact powders were fired at 850°C and 900°C for 60 min in order to investigate the effect of yerba mate and temperature on the formation of pores and the thermal and mechanical properties of the processed glass foams. The results indicated that the glass foams displayed porosities ranging from 65.3-88.3%, compressive strengths ranging from 15-1.5 MPa, and thermal conductivities ranging from 0.6-0.04 W·m-1·K-1. Cumulatively, these glass foams are candidate thermal insulators that have advantageous properties for various industrial applications.


glass foams; wastes; yerba mate


Abdul, N.A.A., Azmi, A.I., Khalil, A.N.M. (2015) Measurement and optimisation of residual tensile strength and delamination damage of drilled flax fibre reinforced composites. Measurement, 75: 298-307
Abrão, A.M., Faria, P.E., Rubio, J.C. C., Reis, P., Davim, J. P. (2007) Drilling of fiber reinforced plastics: A review. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 186(1-3): 1-7
Advani, S.G. (2006) Processing and Properties of Nanocomposites. World Scientific Pub Co Pte Lt
Arcaro, S., Maia, O., Souza, M.T., Cesconeto, F.R., Granados, L., de Oliveira, A.P.N. (2016) Thermal Insulating Foams Produced From Glass Waste and Banana Leaves. Materials Research, 19(5): 1064-1069
Armanios, E., Bucinell, R., Wilson, D., Capello, E., Tagliaferri, V. (2001) Drilling Damage of GFRP and Residual Mechanical Behavior-Part I: Drilling Damage Generation. Journal of Composites Technology and Research, 23(2): 122
Arul, S., Vijayaraghavan, L., Malhotra, S.K., Krishnamurthy, R. (2006) The effect of vibratory drilling on hole quality in polymeric composites. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 46(3-4): 252-259
ASTM (1997) Standard test method for cold crushing strength and modulus of rupture of refractories. in: Annual Book of ASTM Standards, C 133-97. pp. 6
Beaumont, P.W.R., Soutis, C., Hodzic, A., ur. (2015) Structural integrity and durability of advanced composites: Innovative modelling methods and intelligent design. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing - Elsevier
Bernardo, E., Cedro, R., Florean, M., Hreglich, S. (2007) Reutilization and stabilization of wastes by the production of glass foams. Ceramics International, 33(6): 963-968
Bernardo, E., Scarinci, G., Bertuzzi, P., Ercole, P., Ramon, L. (2010) Recycling of waste glasses into partially crystallized glass foams. Journal of Porous Materials, 17(3): 359-365
Boria, S., Pavlovic, A., Fragassa, C., Santulli, C. (2016) Modeling of Falling Weight Impact Behavior of Hybrid Basalt/Flax Vinylester Composites. Procedia Engineering, 167: 223-230
Bulian, F., Fragassa, C. (2016) VOC emissions from wood products and furniture: A survey about legislation, standards and measures referred to different materials. FME Transactions, vol. 44, br. 4, str. 358-364
Campos, R.J., Abrao, A.M., Faria, P.E., Correia, A. E., Davim, J. P. (2008) Effects of high speed in the drilling of glass fibre reinforced plastic: Evaluation of the delamination factor. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 48(6): 715-720
Capello, E. (2004) Workpiece damping and its effect on delamination damage in drilling thin composite laminates. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 148(2): 186-195
Cardozo, J.E.L., Morand, C. (2016) Interest of mate ( Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.) as a new natural functional food to preserve human cardiovascular health - A review. Journal of Functional Foods, 21: 440-454
Caron, B.O., Santos, D.R.dos, Schmidt, D., Basso, C.J., Behling, A., Eloy, E., Bamberg, R. (2014) Biomass and accumulation of nutrients in Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. Ciência Florestal, 24(2): 267-276
Chen, W. (1997) Some experimental investigations in the drilling of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 37(8): 1097-1108
Chung, D.D.L. (2010) Composite Materials. London: Springer Nature America, Inc
Davim, J., Rubio, J., Abrao, A. (2007) A novel approach based on digital image analysis to evaluate the delamination factor after drilling composite laminates. Composites Science and Technology, 67(9): 1939-1945
Davim, J., Reis, P. (2003) Drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastics manufactured by autoclave-experimental and statistical study. Materials & Design, 24(5): 315-324
Davim, J. (2003) Study of drilling metal-matrix composites based on the Taguchi techniques. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 132(1-3): 250-254
Davim, J., Reis, P., António, C. (2004) Experimental study of drilling glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) manufactured by hand lay-up. Composites Science and Technology, 64(2): 289-297
de Camargo, F.V., Fragassa, C., Pavlović, A., Martignani, M. (2017) Analysis of the suspension design evolution in solar cars. FME Transactions, vol. 45, br. 3, str. 394-404
de Oliveira, Y.M.M., Rotta, E. (1985) Área de distribuição natural de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.). in: Embrapa Florestas-Artigo em anais de congresso. 1983: seminário sobre atualidades e perspectivas florestais, Curitiba, pp. 17-36
de Paola, S., Minak, G., Fragassa, C., Pavlovic, A. (2013) Green composites: A review of state of art. in: 30th Danubia Adria Symposium on Advanced Mechanics, 25-28.09, Primosten, Proc, pp. 77-78
Demirbas, A. (2004) Combustion characteristics of different biomass fuels. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 30(2): 219-230
Dias, G.M., Arcaro, S., Cesconeto, F.R., Maia, B.G.O., Pereira, F.R., Oliveira, A.P. (2015) Production and characterization of glass foams for thermal insulation. Chemical Engineering, Vol. 43
Dinulović, M., Rašuo, B., Krstić, B., Bojanić, A. (2013) 3D random fiber composites as a repair material for damaged honeycomb cores. FME Transactions, vol. 41, br. 4, str. 325-332
El-Sonbaty, I., Khashaba, U.A., Machaly, T. (2004) Factors affecting the machinability of GFR/epoxy composites. Composite Structures, 63(3-4): 329-338
Eriksson, O., Carlsson, R.M., Frostell, B., Björklund, A., Assefa, G., Sundqvist, J.-O., Granath, J., Baky, A., Thyselius, L. (2005) Municipal solid waste management from a systems perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production, 13(3): 241-252
Fotouhi, M., Saeedifar, M., Sadeghi, S., Ahmadi, N.M., Minak, G. (2015) Investigation of the damage mechanisms for mode I delamination growth in foam core sandwich composites using acoustic emission. Structural Health Monitoring: An International Journal, 14(3): 265-280
Fotouhi, M., Sadeghi, S., Jalalvand, M., Ahmadi, M. (2017) Analysis of the damage mechanisms in mixed-mode delamination of laminated composites using acoustic emission data clustering. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 30(3): 318-340
Fragassa, C. (2017) Marine Applications of Natural Fibre-Reinforced Composites: A Manufacturing Case Study. in: Pellicer, Eva; Nikolic, Danilo; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria; Zivic, Fatima; Grujovic, Nenad; Grujic, Radoslav; Pelemis, Svetlana [ed.] Advances in Applications of Industrial Biomaterials, Cham: Springer Nature America, Inc, str. 21-47
Fragassa, C., Pavlovic, A., Santulli, C. (2018) Mechanical and impact characterisation of flax and basalt fibre vinylester composites and their hybrids. Composites Part B: Engineering, 137: 247-259
Fragassa, C. (2016) Effect of natural fibers and bio-resins on mechanical properties in hybrid and non-hybrid composites. in: Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Times of Polymers and Composites: From Aerospace to Nanotechnology, 19-23.06.2016, Ischia., AIP Publishing, Vol. 1736, No. 4949693
Gaitonde, V.N., Karnik, S.R., Paulo, D.J. (2008) Taguchi multiple-performance characteristics optimization in drilling of medium density fibreboard (MDF) to minimize delamination using utility concept. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 196(1-3): 73-78
Gaitonde, V.N., Karnik, S.R., Rubio, J. C., Correia, A. E., Abrão, A.M., Davim, J. P. (2008) Analysis of parametric influence on delamination in high-speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic composites. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 203(1-3): 431-438
Gao, H., Ji, B., Jager, I.L., Arzt, E., Fratzl, P. (2003) Materials become insensitive to flaws at nanoscale: Lessons from nature. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(10): 5597-5600
Garinis, D., Dinulović, M., Rašuo, B. (2012) Dynamic analysis of modified composite helicopter blade. FME Transactions, vol. 40, br. 2, str. 63-68
Gibson, L.J., Ashby, M.F. (1999) Cellular solids: structure and properties. Cambridge: Cambridge university press
Gong, Y., Dongol, R., Yatongchai, C., Wren, A.W., Sundaram, S.K., Mellott, N.P. (2016) Recycling of waste amber glass and porcine bone into fast sintered and high strength glass foams. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112: 4534-4539
Gonzalez, de M.E., Song, Y.S., Ramirez-Mares, M.V., Kobayashi, H. (2005) Effect of Yerba Mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) Tea on Topoisomerase Inhibition and Oral Carcinoma Cell Proliferation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(6): 1966-1973
Grilo, T.J., Paulo, R.M.F., Silva, C.R.M., Davim, J.P. (2013) Experimental delamination analyses of CFRPs using different drill geometries. Composites Part B: Engineering, 45(1): 1344-1350
Grujović, N., Pavlović, A., Šljivić, M., Živić, F. (2016) Cost optimization of additive manufacturing in wood industry. FME Transactions, vol. 44, br. 4, str. 386-392
Heidary, H., Karimi, N.Z., Ahmadi, M., Rahimi, A., Zucchelli, A. (2015) Clustering of acoustic emission signals collected during drilling process of composite materials using unsupervised classifiers. Journal of Composite Materials, 49(5): 559-571
Hocheng, H., Tsao, C.C. (2006) Effects of special drill bits on drilling-induced delamination of composite materials. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 46(12-13): 1403-1416
Hyseni, A., de Paola, S., Minak, G., Fragassa, C. (2013) Mechanical characterization of ecocomposites. in: 30th Danubia Adria Symposium on Advanced Mechanics, 25-28.09, Primosten, Proc, pp. 175-176
Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) (2013) 03/08/2017; Available from:
Instituto Nacional do Mate (INYM) (2013) [cited 2017 03/08/2017]; Available from:
Karnik, S.R., Gaitonde, V.N., Rubio, J. C., Correia, A. E., Abrão, A.M., Davim, J. P. (2008) Delamination analysis in high speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) using artificial neural network model. Materials & Design, 29(9): 1768-1776
Khashaba, U.A. (2004) Delamination in drilling GFR-thermoset composites. Composite Structures, 63(3-4): 313-327
Kilickap, E. (2010) Optimization of cutting parameters on delamination based on Taguchi method during drilling of GFRP composite. Expert Systems with Applications, 37(8): 6116-6122
König, J., Petersen, R.R., Yue, Y. (2015) Fabrication of highly insulating foam glass made from CRT panel glass. Ceramics International, 41(8): 9793-9800
König, J., Petersen, R.R., Yue, Y. (2016) Influence of the glass particle size on the foaming process and physical characteristics of foam glasses. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 447: 190-197
Krishnaraj, V., Zitoune, R., Davim, J. P. (2013) Drilling of Polymer-Matrix Composites. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Nature America, Inc
Liu, D., Tang, Y., Cong, W.L. (2012) A review of mechanical drilling for composite laminates. Composite Structures, 94(4): 1265-1279
Maglio, S., Vannucchi, de C.F., Rodrigues, M.R. (2017) Benefits and Risks in the Use of Composite Materials in Solar Vehicles. Key Engineering Materials, 754: 51-54
Minak, G., Fragassa, C., de Camargo, F.V. (2017) A Brief Review on Determinant Aspects in Energy Efficient Solar Car Design and Manufacturing. Cham: Springer Nature America, Inc, str. 847-856
Mitchell, M.R., Link, R.E., Rasuo, B. (2011) Experimental Techniques for Evaluation of Fatigue Characteristics of Laminated Constructions from Composite Materials: Full-Scale Testing of the Helicopter Rotor Blades. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 39(2): 237-242
Mohammadi, R., Najafabadi, M.A., Saeedifar, M., Yousefi, J., Minak, G. (2017) Correlation of acoustic emission with finite element predicted damages in open-hole tensile laminated composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 108: 427-435
Montgomery, D.C. (2012) Design and analysis of experiments. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons Inc
Mugoni, C., Montorsi, M., Siligardi, C., Andreola, F., Lancellotti, I., Bernardo, E., Barbieri, L. (2015) Design of glass foams with low environmental impact. Ceramics International, 41(3): 3400-3408
Ortega, F.S., Paiva, A.E.M., Rodrigues, J.A., Pandolfelli, V.C. (2003) Propriedades mecânicas de espumas cerâmicas produzidas via 'gelcasting'. Cerâmica, 49(309): 01-05
Petersen, R.R., König, J., Yue, Y. (2017) The viscosity window of the silicate glass foam production. Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 456: 49-54
Pokorny, A., Vicenzi, J., Pérez, B.C. (2011) Influence of heating rate on the microstructure of glass foams. Waste Management & Research, 29(2): 172-179
Ponnuvel, S., Moorthy, T.V. (2013) Multi-Criteria Optimisation in Drilling of Epoxy/Glass Fabric Hybrid Nanocomposite Using Grey Relational Analysis. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 446-447: 172-175
Ponnuvel, S., Moorthy, T.V. (2013) Investigation on the Influence of Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Delamination in Drilling Epoxy/Glass Fabric Polymeric Nanocomposite. Procedia Engineering, 51: 735-744
Rasuo, B. (2010) Experimental study of structural damping of composite helicopter blades with different cores. Plastics, Rubber and Composites, 39(1): 1-5
Rašuo, B. (2007) An experimental methodology for evaluating survivability of an aeronautical construction from composite materials: An overview. International Journal of Crashworthiness, Volume 12, pages 9-15
Roy, R.K. (2010) A primer on the taguchi method. Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Second Edition
Saghafi, H., Brugo, T.M., Zucchelli, A., Fragassa, C., Minak, G. (2016) Comparison of the effect of preload and curvature of composite laminate under impact loading. FME Transactions, vol. 44, br. 4, str. 353-357
Sardiñas, R.Q., Reis, P., Davim, J. P. (2006) Multi-objective optimization of cutting parameters for drilling laminate composite materials by using genetic algorithms. Composites Science and Technology, 66(15): 3083-3088
Scarinci, G., Brusatin, G., Barbieri, L., Corradi, A., Lancellotti, I., Colombo, P., Hreglich, S., DallIgna, R. (2000) Vitrification of industrial and natural wastes with production of glass fibres. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 20(14-15): 2485-2490
Scheffler, M., Colombo, P. (2006) Cellular ceramics: structure, manufacturing, properties and applications. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley
Sellin, N., de Oliveiraa, B.G., Marangonia, C., Souzaa, O., de Oliveirab, A.P.N., de Oliveira, T.M.N. (2013) Use of banana culture waste to produce briquettes. Chemical Engineering, Vol. 32
Sheikh-Ahmad, J.Y. (2009) Machining of polymer composites. Berlin: Springer
Souza, M.T., Maia, B.G.O., Teixeira, L.B., de Oliveira, K.G., Teixeira, A.H.B., Novaes, de O.A.P. (2017) Glass foams produced from glass bottles and eggshell wastes. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 111: 60-64
Sridharan, S. (2008) Delamination behaviour of composites. Elsevier BV
Studart, A.R., Gonzenbach, U.T., Tervoort, E., Gauckler, L.J. (2006) Processing Routes to Macroporous Ceramics: A Review. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 89(6): 1771-1789
Šljivić, M., Pavlović, A., Stanojević, M., Fragassa, C. (2016) Combining additive manufacturing and vacuum casting for an efficient manufacturing of safety glasses. FME Transactions, vol. 44, br. 4, str. 393-397
Teixeira, L.B., Fernandes, V.K., Maia, B.G.O., Arcaro, S., de Oliveira, A.P. N. (2017) Vitrocrystalline foams produced from glass and oyster shell wastes. Ceramics International, 43(9): 6730-6737
Tsao, C., Hocheng, H. (2004) Taguchi analysis of delamination associated with various drill bits in drilling of composite material. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 44(10): 1085-1090
Tsao, C.C., Hocheng, H. (2005) Computerized tomography and C-Scan for measuring delamination in the drilling of composite materials using various drills. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 45(11): 1282-1287
Vannucchi, de C.F., Pavlovic, A. (2017) Fracture Evaluation of the Falling Weight Impact Behaviour of a Basalt/Vinylester Composite Plate through a Multiphase Finite Element Model. Key Engineering Materials, 754: 59-62
Wendling, I. (2004) Propagação vegetativa de ervamate (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire): Estado da arte e tendências futuras
Yousefi, J., Ahmadi, M., Shahri, M. N., Oskouei, A. R., Moghadas, F. J. (2014) Damage Categorization of Glass/Epoxy Composite Material Under Mode II Delamination Using Acoustic Emission Data: A Clustering Approach to Elucidate Wavelet Transformation Analysis. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 39(2): 1325-1335
Zarif, K.N., Heidary, H., Minak, G. (2016) Critical thrust and feed prediction models in drilling of composite laminates. Composite Structures, 148: 19-26
Zarif, K.N., Heidary, H., Minak, G., Ahmadi, M. (2013) Effect of the drilling process on the compression behavior of glass/epoxy laminates. Composite Structures, 98: 59-68
Zarif, K.N., Heidary, H., Fotouhi, M., Minak, G. (2017) Experimental analysis of GFRP laminates subjected to compression after drilling. Composite Structures, 169: 144-152
Zarif, K.N., Minak, G., Kianfar, P. (2015) Analysis of damage mechanisms in drilling of composite materials by acoustic emission. Composite Structures, 131: 107-114
Zarif, K.N., Heidary, H., Ahmadi, M. (2012) Residual tensile strength monitoring of drilled composite materials by acoustic emission. Materials & Design, 40: 229-236
Zilli, M., Arcaro, S., Cesconeto, F.R., Maia, B.G., Pereira, F.R., Oliveira, A.P. (2015) Production and Characterization of Ceramic Foams from Industrial Solid Waste. Chemical Engineering, Vol. 43