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Sociologija
2007, vol. 49, br. 2, str. 97-116
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
doi:10.2298/SOC0702097L


Postoji li mogućnost instaliranja socijalnog kapitalizma u post-socijalističkoj tranziciji?
Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Fakultet tehničkih nauka

Sažetak

Nedavno je Klaus Ofe (C. Offe), nemački sociolog, postavio pitanje koje se odnosilo na sudbinu evropskog modela "socijalnog kapitalizma".1 Da li će "socijalni kapitalizam" preživeti evropsku integraciju, ili će nestati usled tendencija koje je dovode u pitanje? Pri tome, Ofe je pretpostavio da je naznačeni model izazvan globalizacijskim procesima, tačnije nužnošću institucionalnog odgovora na pomenute procese, kao i integracijom srednje- i istočnoevropskih zemalja u Evropsku uniju. Radna hipoteza ovog članka je da se može ponuditi, barem provizoran, ali u teorijskom smislu koherentan odgovor na postavljeno pitanje. Članak se sastoji iz tri dela. U prvom delu se pokazuje da je centralni element "socijalnog kapitalizma", naime, država blagostanja, rekonstituisana usled dubokih promena, ali, uprkos neoliberalno projektovanoj globalizaciji, mogu se pokazati i elementi njenog snažnog kontinuiteta. Autor polazi od socioekonomske teorije Karla Polanjija i naznačava značaj pomenute teorije za razumevanje tendencije kapitalizma u Zapadnoj Evropi i "ne-zapadnom" delu Evrope. Autor smatra da se teorijom Polanjija može objasniti orijentacija utkanog liberalizma posle II svetskog rata i ne-utkanog neoliberalizma posle krize države blagostanja. U drugom delu tvrdim da je u pogledu države blagostanja nastala asimetrična struktura između Zapadne Evrope i "ne-zapadnog" dela Evrope u pogledu "socijalizacije kapitalizma", te da je neoliberalizacija, shodno političkoj intenciji transfera idealnotipskog modela kapitalizma, jače instalirana u zemljama koje se započele "tranzicijske procese" u devedesetim godinama XX veka. U trećem delu navodim da se mora proširiti i pojam blagostanja, i da je uputno govoriti o ekološkim dimenzijama blagostanja, o ekološkoj utkanosti, što ima značaj i za razumevanje situacije u "ne-zapadnom delu" Evrope. Na osnovu uvođenja socio-ekoloških aspekata na kraju se pokušava dati odgovor na Ofeovo pitanje.

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