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Fizička kultura
2003-2004, vol. 57-58, br. 1-4, str. 57-68
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak

Skok u dubinu kao sredstvo pliometrijskog metoda treninga za poboljšanje skočnosti
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja

Sažetak

Oduvek su treneri tražili način kako da brzo i jednostavno poboljšaju skočnost svojih sportista. Radovi Verhošanskog su im ponudili jedan novi vid treninga koji se sastojao iz skokova u dubinu (SD). SD karakteriše povratni režim rada mišića (PRRM). Ovakav režim rada mišića podrazumeva da koncentričnoj kontrakciji, tokom odskoka, prethodi brza ekscentrična kontrakcija, prilikom pripreme za odskok. Istraživanja su pokazala da je skok, izveden na ovakav način, viši od onog, izvedenog iz položaja čučnja, odnosno kada je izvršeni rad mišića ostvaren samo u koncentričnom režimu. Još uvek nisu jasno određeni razlozi koji dovode do ove pojave, s obzirom na postojanje različitih pristupa pojedinih istraživača ovom problemu. Veliki broj studija je istraživao uticaj treninga na poboljšanje maksimalne visine skoka, prilikom izvođenja SD. Došlo se do zaključka da je najispravniji pristup putem progresivnog opterećenja sportiste. Da bi se to postiglo na najbolji mogući način, potrebno je odrediti optimalnu visinu sa koje se SD izvodi. Takođe je od značaja i tehnika izvođenja, odnosno da li se doskok vrši pokretom većih ili manjih amplituda, sa dužim ili kraćim zadržavanjem na tlu. Pored dva navedena i niz drugih faktora utiče na efikasnost SD, o čemu treneri moraju voditi računa prilikom konstruisanja programa treninga. Zaključeno je da ovaj metod treninga predstavlja efikasno sredstvo za poboljšanje maksimalne visine skoka. Neistraženi prostori na koje se u ovom radu ukazuje su mehanizam PRRM, kao i uticaj treninga u slučaju primene različitih tehnika SD. Ostaje nejasan i uticaj strukture mišića na efekte treninga.

Ključne reči

skok u dubinu; pliometrija; povratni režim; optimalna; amortizujući; reaktivni; struktura mišića

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