Article metrics

  • citations in SCindeks: 0
  • citations in CrossRef:0
  • citations in Google Scholar:[=>]
  • visits in previous 30 days:2
  • full-text downloads in 30 days:2
article: 5 from 6  
Back back to result list
Hospital Pharmacology - International Multidisciplinary Journal
2015, vol. 2, iss. 1, pp. 199-209
article language: English
document type: Paper
published on: 01/12/2016
doi: 10.5937/hpimj1501199G
Application of EN-14065 in new management of hospital laundry in order to reduce HAIs use of antibiotics and to slow the development of superbugs
Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade



Introduction Despite the steps taken to reduce HAIs (Healthcare Acquired Infections), they still remain one of the world's leading and most costly healthcare challenges. Most are preventable. All are extremely costly in human and financial terms. The aim of this work is to summarize data on the persistence of different nosocomial pathogens on hospital textile and laundry, to reduce HAIs, and use of antibiotics, with New Safety Management of Hospital Laundry by application of EN-14065 and PVA-bags, all in order to slow the development of resistant bacteria and prevent the spread of resistant infections. Methodology We reviewed cited articles, and tested environmental friendly PVA-bags to proof minimizing the possibility of textiles posing as a source of infection. Topic Reviewed cited articles confirmed existing persistence of the nosocomial pathogens on hospital surfaces. Efficiency of using PVA-bags to minimize transmission we confirmed in the Clinical Center of Serbia. The EN-14065 standard came into force in Serbia in 2012., and requires controlling the RABC system which provides an acceptable level of microbiological quality of laundered hospital laundry in hygienically clean state (12 CFU/25 cm2). Conclusions Facts, that healthcare laundry continuous posing as a source of infection, and facts that HAIs are most preventable, confirmed our need to make New Safety Management of Hospital Laundry by application the EN-14065 and PVA-bags to maintain effective Infection Control, which must be involved in Serbian HealthCare System, to slow the development of resistant bacteria (superbugs VRS, MRSA) all in order to reduce HAIs, use of antibiotics, morbidity and mortality. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria - germs that don't respond to the drugs developed to kill them, threaten to return us to the time when simple infections were often fatal. The best way to reduce occurrence of HAIs will be, if new Insurance coverage regulations from Serbia eliminate reimbursement for HAIs deemed preventable.


new management; hospital-acquired infection; soiled linen; European standard (EN 14065); PVA-water soluble laundry bags


*** (2003) Guidelines for environmental infection control in health-care facilities. in: MMWR - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 52, I-44
*** Biodegradable/water: Soluble bags.
*** (1978) Vinyl acetate, polyvinyl acetate and polyvinyl alcohol. in: Some Monomers, Plastics, and Synthetic Elastomers, and Acrolein, Lyon, France: IARC Working group, feb. 7-13
*** (2011) Nursing and physician attire as possible source of nosocomial infections. American Journal of Infection Control, September
*** (2003) Textiles-laundry processed textiles-bio contamination control system. EN 14065
Ansari, S.A., Sattar, S.A., Springthorpe, V.S., Wells, G.A. (1988) Rotavirus survival on human hands and transfer of infectious virus to inanimate and nonporous inanimate surfaces. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 26: 1513-1518
Association of Perioperative Nurses (AORN) (2010) Recommended practices for surgical attire. November
Barrie, D. (1994) How hospital linen and laundry services are provided. Journal of Hospital Infection, 27(3): 219-235
Bond, W.W., Favero, M.S., Petersen, N.J., Gravelle, C.R., Ebert, J.W., Maynard, J.E. (1981) Survival of hepatitis B virus after drying and storage for one week. Lancet, 1(8219): 550-1
Boyce, J.M., Potter-Bynoe, G., Chenevert, C., King, T. (1997) Environmental Contamination Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Possible Infection Control Implications. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 18(9): 622-627
Butz, A.M., Fosarelli, P., Dick, J., Cusack, T. (1993) Prevalence of rotavirus on high-risk fomites in daycare facilities. Pediatrics, 92: 202-205
CDC (2001) MMWR, 50(RR05), 1-43
CDC (1999) in: MMWR - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48, 707-710
Centers for Disease Control (1988) Update: Universal precautions for prevention of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and other blood borne pathogens in health-care settings. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 37, 377-382, 387-388
Centre for Disease Control (2000) Washing infected material. in: Laundry Working Group Discussion Paper, September 1998, Atlanta, USA: Central Sterilizing Club
Cervantes, L., i dr. (2011) Newly cleaned physician uniforms and infrequently washed white coats have similar rates of bacterial contamination after an 8-hour work. Journal of Hospital Medicine, 000:000-000.VC 2011 Society of Hospital Medicine uniforme
Collins, A.S. (2008) Preventing healthcare-associated infections. in: Hughes R.G. [ed.] Patient safety and quality: An evidence-based handbook for nurses, Rockville, MD, USA: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, pp. 547-575, Chapter 41
Das, I., Lambert, P., Hill, D., Noy, M., Bion, J., Elliott, T. (2002) Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter and role of curtains in an outbreak in intensive care units. Journal of Hospital Infection, 50(2): 110-114
Duckro, A.N. (2005) Transfer of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci via Health Care Worker Hands. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165(3): 302
Fijan, S., Šostar-Turk, S., Cencič, A. (2005) Implementing hygiene monitoring systems in hospital laundries in order to reduce microbial contamination of hospital textiles. Journal of Hospital Infection, 61(1): 30-38
Hanna, H., Raad, I., Gonzalez, V., Umphrey, J., Tarrand, J., Neumann, J., Champlin, R. (2000) Control of Nosocomial Clostridium difficile Transmission in Bone Marrow Transplant Patients. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 21(03): 226-228
Healthcare Laundry Accreditation Council (HLAC) Hygienically clean textiles., January 2012
Healthcare Laundry Accreditation Council (2006) Accreditation standards for processing reusable textiles for use in healthcare facilities. April
Holder, I.A., Neely, A.N. (1998) Fear of MRSA - potential for future disaster. Burns, 24(2): 99-103
Kramer, A., i dr. (2006) How long do nosocomial pathogens persist on inanimate surfaces?. BMC Infectious Deseases, Central page 1-8
Lakdawala, N., Pham, J., Shah, M., Holton, J. (2011) Effectiveness of Low-Temperature Domestic Laundry on the Decontamination of Healthcare Workers' Uniforms. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 32(11): 1103-1108
Neely, A.N., Maley, M.P. (2000) Survival of enterococci and staphylococci on hospital fabrics and plastic. J Clin Microbiol, 38(2); 724-726
Neely, A.N., Orloff, M.M. (2001) Survival of Some Medically Important Fungi on Hospital Fabrics and Plastics. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39(9): 3360-3361
NHS Executive (1995) Hospital laundry arrangements for used and infected linen. in: Health Service Guidelines, Lancashire, HSG(93)18)
NHS Purchasing and supply Agency (2003) Market testing of laundry and linen services: Procurement Guide
Oliphant, J.W., Gordon, D.A., Meis, A., Parker, R.R. (1949) Q fever in laundry workers, presumably transmitted from contaminated clothing1. American Journal of Epidemiology, 49(1): 76-82
Orr, K.E., Holliday, M.G., Jones, A.L., Robson, I., Perry, J.D. (2002) Survival of enterococci during hospital laundry processing. Journal of Hospital Infection, 50(2): 133-139
Otero, R.B. (1986) Soiled hospital linens: Are they a threat?. Laund. News, 12, 17
Overton, E. (1988) Bed-making and bacteria. Nursing Times, 85(9); 69-71
Pulvirenti, J.J., i dr. (2002) Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 23, 641-647
Pyrek, K. (2011) Trends in Infection Prevention and Control: Healthcare Textiles: Laundry Science and Infection Prevention. Infection Control Today, March
Sasahara, T., Hayashi, S., Morisawa, Y., Sakihama, T., Yoshimura, A., Hirai, Y. (2011) Bacillus cereus bacteremia outbreak due to contaminated hospital linens. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 30(2): 219-226
Sattar, S.A., Lloyd-Evans, N., Springthorpe, V., Nair, R.C. (1986) Institutional outbreaks of rotavirus diarrhoea: potential role of fomites and environmental surfaces as vehicles for virus transmission. Journal of Hygiene, 96(02): 277-289
Shah, P.C., Krajden, S., Kane, J., Summerbell, R.C. (1988) Tinea corporis caused by Microsporum canis: Report of a Nosocomial outbreak. European Journal of Epidemiology, 4(1): 33-38
Sifuentes, L.Y., Gerba, C.P., Weart, I., Engelbrecht, K., Koenig, D.W. (2013) Microbial contamination of hospital reusable cleaning towels. American Journal of Infection Control, 41(10): 912-915
Smith, J.A., Neil, K.R., Davidson, C.G., Davidson, R.W. (1987) Effect of Water Temperature on Bacterial Killing in Laundry. Infection Control, 8(05): 204-209
Taniguchi, J., Ohkita, K. (1977) Testing paper for measuring poly(vinyl alcohol) concentration. Japanese Patent 7765, 495, 30 May, to Shikishima Spinning Co. Ltd [Chem. Abstr. 88, 54762k]
Textile Rental Services Association (TRSA) (2013) Standard for producing hygienically clean reusable textiles. May
Verity, P., Wilcox, M.H., Fawley, W., Parnell, P. (2001) Prospective evaluation of environmental contamination by Clostridium difficile in isolation side rooms. Journal of Hospital Infection, 49(3): 204-209
Walter, W.G., Schillinger, J.E. (1975) Bacterial survival in laundered fabrics. Appl Microbiol, 29: 368-73
Webster, C., Towner, K.J., Humphreys, H. (2000) Survival of Acinetobacter on Three Clinically Related Inanimate Surfaces. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 21(04): 246
Weinstein, R.A., Hota, B. (2004) Contamination, Disinfection, and Cross-Colonization: Are Hospital Surfaces Reservoirs for Nosocomial Infection?. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 39(8): 1182-1189
Wiener-Well, Y., Galuty, M., Rudensky, B., Schlesinger, Y., Attias, D., Yinnon, A.M. (2011) Nursing and physician attire as possible source of nosocomial infections. American Journal of Infection Control, 39(7): 555-559
Wilson, J.A., Loveday, H.P., Hoffman, P.N., Pratt, R.J. (2007) Uniform: an evidence review of the microbiological signifi cance of uniforms and uniform policy in the prevention and control of healthcare-associated infections. Report to the Department of Health (England). J Hosp Infect, 66: 301-7
World Health Organization (WHO), International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in: IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man, Lyon, France, Vol. 19, pp. 341-366
World Health Organization (WHO) (2009) Guidelines on hand hygiene in health care