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Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis
2018, vol. 35, br. 3, str. 201-215
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
doi:10.2478/afmnai-2018-0022

Creative Commons License 4.0
Uticaj programa vežbi sa opterećenjem na snagu mišića i koštanu gustinu sportista adolescenata
aUniverzitet u Nišu, Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja
bUniverzitet u Nišu, Medicinski fakultet
cSrednjoškolski centar Prijedor, Prijedor, Republika Srpska, Bosna i Hercegovina
dUniverzitet u Beogradu, Medicinski fakultet
eUniverzitet u Novom Sadu, Fakultet fizičke kulture
fUniverzitet u Kragujevcu, Učiteljski fakultet, Užice

e-adresa: bubanjsasa@yahoo.co.uk

Projekat

Razlike i uticaji maksimalne snage mišića na gustinu koštanog tkiva između sportista i nesportista srednjoškolskog uzrasta (MPNTR - 179024)

Sažetak

Trening snage i drugi oblici fizičke aktivnosti mogu biti od koristi u prevenciji osteoporoze povećanjem prirasta sadržaja minerala u detinjstvu i adolescenciji. Aktuelno istraživanje je fokusirano na uticaj devetomesečnog programa vežbi, sa spoljašnjim opterećenjem različitog intenziteta (niskog, srednjeg i visokog), na eksplozivnu snagu donjih ekstremiteta i gustinu koštanog tkiva sportista adolescenata uzrasta od 17 do 18 godina. Šezdeset zdravih sportista i nesportista, podeljenih u eksperimentalni (ES, sprinteri, N = 45) i kontrolni subuzorak (CS, nesportisti, N = 15), uključeni su u istraživanje. Ispitanici ES (EG1, EG2 i EG3) su podvrgnuti programu vežbi sa spoljašnjim opterećenjem niskog (60% od jednoponavljajućeg maksimuma (prema engl. One Repetition Maximum-1RM), srednjeg (70%1RM) i visokog (85%1RM) intenziteta, navedenim redosledom. Vrednosti koštano mineralne gustine tkiva (prema engl. Bone Mineral Density-BMD) utvrđene su upotrebom kliničkog sonometra 'Sahara' (Hologic, Inc., MA 02154, USA). Vrednosti eksplozivne snage opružača i pregibača u zglobu kuka, zglobu kolena i skočnom zglobu utvrđene su upotrebom akcelerometra 'Myotest' (Sion, Švajcarska), posredstvom skoka sa počučnjem (prema engl. Counter Movement Jump bez zamaha ruku - CMJ) i polučučnja sa opterećenjem. Metoda ANOVA za ponovljena merenja i metoda ANCOVA upotrebljene su za utvrđivanje statistički značajnih razlika i uticaja programa na eksplozivnu snagu donjih ekstremiteta i gustinu koštanog tkiva. Vežbe sa spoljašnjim opterećenjem utiču na parametre eksplozivne snage i koštanog tkiva, tako da dovode do uvećanja vrednosti 1RM u polučučnju, ali i umanjenja vrednosti CMJ, kao i uvećanja vrednosti brzine zvuka (prema engl. Speed of Sound-SOS), širokopojasne ultrazvučne atenuacije (prema engl. Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation-BUA) i koštano-mineralne gustine (prema engl. Bone Mineral Density-BMD) kod sportista-adolescenata uzrasta 17-18 godina.

Ključne reči

vežbe sa spoljašnjim opterećenjem; eksplozivna snaga; gustina koštanog tkiva; sprinteri

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