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Specijalna edukacija i rehabilitacija
2011, vol. 10, br. 2, str. 301-317
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
Konceptualne adaptivne veštine kod dece sa intelektualnom ometenošću
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet za specijalnu edukaciju i rehabilitaciju

e-adresa: mjkikilj@gmail.com + japundza@neobee.net

Projekat

Socijalna participacija osoba sa intelektualnom ometenošću (MPNTR - 179017)

Sažetak

U drugoj polovini 20. veka koncept adaptivnog ponašanja postaje sastavni deo gotovo svih definicija intelektualne ometenosti. Procena ovog aspekta ponašanja vremenom je postala efikasno sredstvo za strukturiranje sadržaja obuke i programa edukacije za osobe sa intelektualnom ometenošću. Prilikom sagledavanja potreba za podrškom koju treba pružiti ovim osobama, procena adaptivnog ponašanja se može koristiti kao indirektna mera tih potreba. Cilj ovog rada je da se sagledaju aspekti adaptivnog ponašanja koji se odnose na konceptualne veštine, kao i mogućnosti procene i tretmana pojedinih komponenti ovih veština kod dece sa intelektualnom ometenošću. Prema Američkoj asocijaciji za mentalnu retardaciju (sadašnji naziv Američka asocijacija za intelektualnu ometenost) konceptualne adaptivne veštine obuhvataju komunikaciju, funkcionalne akademske veštine i veštine samousmeravanja (AAMR, 2002). Navedeni aspekti konceptualnih veština dalje se razlažu na veliki broj pojedinačnih veština potrebnih za uspešno funkcionisanje u svakodnevnom životu. Rezultati istraživanja u oblasti konceptualnih veština kod dece sa intelektualnom ometenošću, pored dokumentovanja postojećih ograničenja u pojedinim aspektima ovih veština, pružaju uvid u načine na koje se može poboljšati njihovo adaptivno funkcionisanje. Kreiranje i primena različitih pristupa u podsticanju funkcionalnih akademskih veština, ili pristupa kojima se umanjuju akademski zahtevi za učenike sa intelektualnom ometenošću, mogu im obezbediti nepohodnu podršku pri uključivanju u redovno obrazovno okruženje i širu društvenu sredinu. Timska sveobuhvatna procena, uz korišćenje različitih instrumenata i/ili vidova evaluacije, trebalo bi da bude prvi korak u kreiranju takvih pristupa. Sagledavanje dostignutog nivoa ovladanosti određenom veštinom, unutar njenog razvojnog kontinuuma, omogućava usmeravanje ciljeva tretmana i nastave ka daljem razvoju te veštine.

Ključne reči

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