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Medicinski pregled
2016, vol. 69, br. 9-10, str. 267-273
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: originalan članak
objavljeno: 27/10/2016
doi: 10.2298/MPNS1610267K
Antropometrijske karakteristike i funkcionalne sposobnosti vrhunskih veslača i rukometaša
aUniverzitet u Novom Sadu, Medicinski fakultet, Katedra za fiziologiju
bKlinički centar Vojvodine, Klinika za anesteziju i intenzivnu terapiju, Novi Sad
cUniverzitet u Novom Sadu, Medicinski fakultet, Katedra za anatomiju
dUniverzitet u Novom Sadu, Medicinski fakultet

e-adresa: dea.karaba-jakovljevic@mf.uns.ac.rs

Sažetak

Uvod. Analiza antropometrijskog i anaerobnog profila vrhunskih sportista je od fundamentalnog značaja za procenu njihovih funkcionalnih sposobnosti. Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je evaluacija antropometrijskih parametara, telesne kompozicije i anaerobnih sposobnosti kod vrhunskih rukometaša i veslača i njihovo poređenje u zavisnosti od specifičnih zahteva sporta. Materijal i metode. Istraživanje je sprovedeno u grupi od 41 vrhunskog sportiste: 20 rukometaša starosti 23,7 ± 3,72 godina i 21 veslača starosti 19,7 ± 2,84 godina. Svim ispitanicima su izmereni antropometrijski parametri (telesna masa, telesna visina, debljine kožnih nabora i telesni dijametri), a masna masa procenjena je metodom bioelektrične impedancije. Za analizu anaerobnih sposobnosti ispitanika primenjen je Vingejt (Wingate) anaerobni test kojim se dobijaju sledeći parametri: anaerobna snaga, eksplozivna snaga i anaerobni kapacitet. Rezultati. Statistički značajne razlike zabeležene su u vrednostima obima nadlaktice, struka i kukova i grudi, kao i u vrednostima supraspinalnog i kožnog nabora potkolenice. Kod veslača su utvrđene više vrednosti masne mase tela (13,2 ± 3,76 vs. 10,7 ± 3,76%), ali niži indeks telesne mase (22 ± 1,92 vs. 25,7 ± 2,31 kg/m2) u poređenju sa rukometašima. Poredeći rezultate Vingejt testa, statistički značajno veće vrednosti apsolutne anaerobne snage (786 ± 127 vs. 691 ± 140 W) i apsolutne eksplozivne snage zabeležene su kod rukometaša (118 ± 26,3 vs. 105 ± 27,8 W/s), dok su veslači ostvarili veće vrednosti relativnog anaerobnog kapaciteta (192 ± 31,2 vs. 177 ± 20,8 J/kg). Zaključak. Specifična analiza telesne kompozicije i antropometrijska analiza dopunjuju fiziološki profil vrhunskih sportista. Analizirajući anaerobne sposobnosti, rukometaši poseduju izraženiju alaktatnu anaerobnu i eksplozivnu snagu u poređenju sa veslačima, kod kojih anaerobna izdržljivost i specifični trening najviše doprinose utrošku dominantnog metaboličkog supstrata tokom trke.

Ključne reči

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