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Bankarstvo
2013, vol. 42, br. 6, str. 18-61
jezik rada: srpski, engleski
vrsta rada: originalan članak

Bankarstvo u severozapadnoj Evropi
Institut za novejšo zgodovino, Ljubljana, Slovenija

e-adresa: zarko.lazarevic@inz.si

Sažetak

Oblast severozapadne Evrope obuhvata Francusku, Nemačku, Holandiju, Belgiju, Luksemburg i Švajcarsku. To je region koji je, zahvaljujući svom položaju u srcu Evrope i postignutom ekonomskom i društvenom razvoju, diktirao pravac opšteg razvoja Evrope. Sa izuzetkom Luksemburga, koji je previše mali da bi igrao značajniju ulogu, sve ostale zemlje bile su veliki izvoznici kapitala u ostale delove Evrope, naročito u južne i istočne regione. Usled brze industrijalizacije, ove zemlje već su u drugoj polovini 19. veka uspele da zauzmu značajnu poziciju u evropskom ekonomskom poretku. Francuska i Nemačka bile su u rangu evropskih ekonomskih, vojnih i političkih supersila, čiji je doprinos uspostavljanju balansa među silama bio ogroman. Uprkos tome što su ostale od ovih zemalja imale relativno manji uticaj zbog manjeg ekonomskog prostora koji zauzimaju, i dalje je taj uticaj bio daleko veći od onoga što se moglo očekivati na osnovu njihove veličine. Razvoj bankarstva se odvijao na različite načine, ali je zajednička odlika svih posmatranih zemalja činjenica da je njihovo bankarstvo počelo da se razvija relativno rano u srednjem veku, paralelno sa razvojem trgovinskih tokova u Evropi. Centri koji su formirani tada održaće svoju vodeću ulogu u evropskom kontekstu tokom kasnijih vekova, pa i u 19. i 20. veku. Sem toga, priča o švajcarskom bankarskom sistemu pruža nam priliku da predstavimo kako je došlo do uspostavljanja instrumenta bankarske tajne. To je moguće iz razloga što je bankarski sistem Švajcarske praktično postao sinonim za pojam bankarske poverljivosti.

Ključne reči

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