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Odložena žetva Miscanthus × Giganteus - uticaj na kvalitet i količinu obrazovane biomase
aUniverzitet u Beogradu, Institut za primenu nuklearne energije - INEP
bUniverzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet
cUniverzitet Singidunum, Beograd
Projekat:
Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. NPEE-263003A

Sažetak
Miskantus ili kineska šaš (Miscanthus×giganteus Greef et Deu.) predstavlja nov višegodišnji usev za proizvodnju biomase, koja se koristi kao energetska sirovina za sagorevanje u kotlovima. Kvalitet ove sirovine zavisi prvenstveno od sadržaja vlage i azota u njoj. Poljski ogledi su izvedeni na gajnjači (eutrični kambisol). U toku perioda intenzivnog rasta i razvoja (od kraja aprila do početka oktobra) usev odlikuje visok sadržaj vlage (50-65%) i visok sadržaj azota (≥1%). Krajem septembra usev miskantusa obrazuje maksimalnu biomasu nadzemnog dela. Prelaskom u fazu zimskog mirovanja (od kraja okrobra do početka aprila) sadržaj vlage u usevu se postepeno smanjuje sušenjem stabala i listova. Procentualni sadržaj N, P i K u usevu se, takođe, smanjuje, delom zbog opadanja listova i vrhova stabljika, a delom zbog premeštanja hraniva iz nadzemnih vegetativnih organa u rizome. Pomeranjem vremena žetve na period: kraj decembra do kraja marta, ukupna biomasa miskantusa se smanjuje, ali usled manjeg sadržaja vode (≤30%) i manje količine azotnih materija (<0,7%) dobijena biomasa je kvalitetnija za sagorevanje.
Reference
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Beale, C.V., Long, S.P. (1997) Seasonal dynamics of nutrient accumulation and partitioning in the perennial C4-grasses Miscanthus x giganteus and Spartina cynosuroides. Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 12, br. 6, str. 419-428
Christian, D.G., Poulton, P.R., Riche, A.B., Yates, N.E., Todd, A.D. (2006) The recovery over several seasons of 15N-labelled fertilizer applied to Miscanthus×giganteus ranging from 1 to 3 years old. Biomass and Bioenergy, 30, 2, p.125-133
Dželetović, Ž., Dražić, G., Blagojević, S., Mihailović, N. (2006) Specifični agrotehnički uslovi gajenja miskantusa. Poljoprivredna tehnika, vol. 31, br. 4, str. 107-115
Dželetović, Ž., Dražić, G., Glamočlija, Đ., Mihailović, N. (2007) Miskantus - evropska iskustva sa novim energetskim usevom. Časopis za procesnu tehniku i energetiku u poljoprivredi / PTEP, vol. 11, br. 1-2, str. 66-70
Heaton, E., Voigt, T., Long, SP. (2004) Above-ground biomass assessments and first cutting cycle production in willow (Salix sp.) coppicea comparison between destructive and non-destructive methods. Biomass and Bioenergy, 27(1): 1
Himken, M., Lammel, J., Neukirchen, D., Czypionka-Krause, U., Olfs, H.W. (1997) Cultivation of Miscanthus under West European conditions: Seasonal changes in dry matter production, nutrient uptake and remobilization. Plant and Soil, 189 1, str. 117-126
Jones, J.B., Case, V.W. (1990) Sampling, handling and analyzing plant tissue samples. u: Westerman R. L. [ur.] Soil testing and plant analysis, Madison, WI: Soil Science Society of America, p.389-427
Jörgensen, U., Mortensen, J., Bonderup, K.J., Schwarz, K.U. (2003) Establishment, development and yield quality of fifteen Miscanthus genotypes over three years in Denmark. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Plant and Soil Science, vol. 53, br. 4, str. 190-199
Kauter, D., Lewandowski, I., Claupein, W. (2002) Quality management during production of triticale for solid fuel use. u: Faaij A. [ur.] Contribution to the 12th European Biomass Conference, Utrecht: Utrecht University - Copernicus Institute - Science Technology and Society, str. 52-55
Lewandowski, I., Kicherer, A. (1997) Combustion quality of biomass: Practical relevance and experiments to modify the biomass quality of Miscanthus×giganteus. European Journal of Agronomy, vol. 6, br. 3-4, str. 163-177
Lewandowski, I., Heinz, A. (2003) Delayed harvest of miscanthus: Influences on biomass quantity and quality and environmental impacts of energy production. European Journal of Agronomy, 19(1): 45
Lewandowski, I., Clifton-Brown, J.C., Scurlock, J.M.O., Huisman, W. (2000) Miscanthus: European experience with a novel energy crop. Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 19, br. 4, str. 209-227
Miguez, F.E., Villamil, M.B., Long, S.P., Bollero, G.A. (2008) Meta-analysis of the effects of management factors on Miscanthus×giganteus growth and biomass production. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 148, br. 8-9, str. 1280-1292
Schwarz, H., Liebhard, P., Ehrendorfer, K., Ruckenbauer, P. (1994) The effect of fertilization on yield and quality of Miscanthus sinensis 'giganteus'. Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 2, str. 153-159
 

O članku

jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
objavljen u SCIndeksu: 13.10.2009.

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