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2018, iss. 46, pp. 115-124
article language: Serbian
document type: Original Scientific Paper
published on: 14/03/2019
doi: 10.5937/bastina1846115S
Creative Commons License 4.0
Spinoza's, and Locke's theory of social contract
Institute for Serbian Culture, Leposavić



Material and spiritual culture of Kosovo and Metohija (MESTD - 178028)


Spinoza puts at the first place the realisation of personal freedom, and individual's happiness, which can be achieved only in social state after the agreement between individual, and community. That state is based on reason, and natural right remains untouchable, and unalienable. There is no difference between natural law, and natural right. There is as much of right as the power of individual, and state is. He did not want to discover something timeless, and out of space but to indicate to basic principles which were derived from human nature. Locke wished to separate society from the state since society appeared before the state, and its members decided what the government would be like. The government is based on the consent of the subordinated ones. The state of nature is the one of freedom in which people have got the right to work, and property. All mentioned will be guaranteed by the state with restricted government. Locke attacked absolute monarchy calling for limited constitutional parliamentary government, which favoured the rule of law as preliminary condition for liberalism. He was in favour for protective democracy where the state protects citizens, and the citizens are protected from the state's power as well. Differently from Hobbes, Locke is anthropological optimist. Lockie is liberalist and optimist since he, based on the protective democracy, maintains the democracy is not only the protector of people but it protects them from the absolute power of the state. People are free in the state of nature, and in the limits of natural laws. Thanks to reason, the men behave in accordance with the laws of the nature.



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