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Godišnjak Fakulteta sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja
2014, br. 20, str. 5-33
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: neklasifikovan
doi:10.5937/gfsfv1420005M
Neuromehanička kontrola izvođenja submaksimalnih skokova
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Fakultet sporta i fizičkog vaspitanja

Projekat

Primena biomedicinskog inženjeringa u pretkliničkoj i kliničkoj praksi (MPNTR - 41007)

Sažetak

Kako se većina skokova u trenažnim i takmičarskim uslovima izvodi intenzitetom koji je manji od maksimalnog (submaksimalni), neophodno je utvrditi koje su to neuromišićne i biomehaničke varijable koje učestvuju u kontroli izvođenja skokova submaksimalnim intenzitetom. Uže definisan cilj istraživanja predstavlja ispitivanje kako se na promenu intenziteta izvođenja i intenziteta opterećenja vertikalnih sunožnih skokova prilagođavaju unapred programirane i fidbek aktivnosti centralnog nervnog sistema, kao i određene biomehaničke varijable. U okviru eksperimenta praćene su elektromiografske i biomehaničke varijable. Eksperimentalna postavka je sprovedena sa petnaest ispitanika i odnosila se na ispitivanje kontrole izvođenja submaksimalnih vertikalnih sunožnih skokova nakon doskoka sa platforme određene visine (DJ skokovi). Ispitanici su izvodili DJ skokove sa različitih visina platforme (20, 40 i 60 cm) i na različite visine odskoka (65, 80 i 95% od maksimalnog). Najbitniji rezultati i zaključci ove studije ukazuju na sledeće: (1) mehanizmi unapred programirane aktivnosti nemaju značajan uticaj na doziranje visine odskoka; (2) povećanje visine odskoka značajno utiče na povećanje aktivacije većine mišića donjih ekstremiteta tek u fazi otiskivanja od podloge, što ukazuje da mehanizmi reprogramiranja i fidbek kontrole imaju značajan uticaj na doziranje visine odskoka; (3) povećanje visine platforme je dominantan faktor koji utiče na povećanje aktivacije većine mišića donjih ekstremiteta tokom svih praćenih faza, gde je za fazu preaktivacije i fazu u kojoj se javlja prvi mišićni odgovor nakon kontakta sa podlogom nevažno kojim se intenzitetom izvodi odskok, već je isključivo bitno sa koje visine platforme se izvodi doskok; (4) ekstenzioni momenat u zglobu kuka je najvažnija biomehanička varijabla koja doprinosi uvećanju visine odskoka kod DJ skoka.

Ključne reči

elektromiografija; preaktivacija; fidbek kontrola; motorni program; krutost sistema; centar mase; momenti u zglobovima; visina odskoka; visina platforme

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