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TIMS. Acta
2015, vol. 9, br. 1, str. 49-61
jezik rada: srpski
vrsta rada: pregledni članak
doi:10.5937/timsact9-6017


Uticaj fizičke aktivnosti na stepen hromozomskih aberacija
aKlinički centar Kragujevac, Klinika za ginekologiju i akušerstvo, Odsek za citogenetska ispitivanja
bUniverzitet u Kragujevcu, Fakultet medicinskih nauka, Ginekologija i akušerstvo + Klinički centar Kragujevac, Klinika za ginekologiju i akušerstvo

e-adresa: gordana.sosic.2011.02@gmail.com, miravarjacic@yahoo.com

Sažetak

Tokom života ljudi su konstantno izloženi hemikalijama i agensima iz egzogenih i endogenih izvora koji putem reakcije sa molekulom DNA mogu dovesti do oštećenja genoma i genomske nestabilnosti. Formiranje mikronukleusa predstavlja posledicu nastalih hromozomskih aberacija uzrokovanih dejstvom različitih genetskih i sredinskih faktora. Mikronukleusi su citoplazmatske hromatinske mase sa izgledom malih jedara i mogu poticati od celih hromozoma ili od delova hromozoma. Mikronukleus test (MN test) se koristi za detekciju genotoksičnog efekta različitih hemijskih, fizičkih i bioloških mutagena kao i test za određivanje hromozomske nestabilnosti u različitim tipovima ćelija. Frekvenca mikronukleusa je direktno proporcionalna stepenu hromozomskih aberacija. Dokazano je da oštećenje genoma može nastati kao posledica sredinske izloženosti genotoksinima i medicinskim procedurama, usled deficijencije mikronutricijenata i pod uticajem različitih životnih navika i genetskih faktora. Nebalansirana ishrana, nedostatak fizičkog vežbanja, nedovoljno sna i prekovremeni rad doprinose statistički značajno povećanoj frekvenci mikronukleusa. Takođe je pokazano da naporno vežbanje dovodi do oštećenja DNK, što rezultira formiranjem mikronukleusa. S obzirom na to da profesionalni sportisti sprovode visoko intenzive fizičke treninge, ova populacija spada u rizičnu grupu za nastanak genomske nestabilnosti i karcinogenezu. Zdrav način života, optimalni unos antioksidanasa i redovna umerena fizička aktivnost značajno redukuju frekvencu mikronukleusa, odnosno doprinose stabilnosti genoma.

Ključne reči

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