Metrika članka

  • citati u SCindeksu: 0
  • citati u CrossRef-u:0
  • citati u Google Scholaru:[=>]
  • posete u poslednjih 30 dana:24
  • preuzimanja u poslednjih 30 dana:16
članak: 4 od 157  
Back povratak na rezultate
Timočki medicinski glasnik
2020, vol. 45, br. 1-2, str. 32-67
jezik rada: srpski, engleski
vrsta rada: prikaz
objavljeno: 26/07/2020
doi: 10.5937/tmg2001032B
Promena paradigme za stabilnu koronarnu bolest u hronični koronarni sindromi - novine u vodiču Evropskog udruženja kardiologa iz 2019. godine
aInternistička ordinacija "Dr Bastać", Zaječar
bVojnomedicinska akademija, Klinika za kardiologiju, Beograd
cPoliklinika Belmedic, Beograd
dInternistička ordinacija "Joksimović", Bor
eSpecijalistička ordinacija za internu medicinu "Dr Pavlović-kardiologija", Beograd
fZdravstveni centar Zaječar (ZCZ), Internistička služba, Nefrološki odsek, Zaječar
gZCZ, Pedijatrijska služba, Zaječar
hZCZ, Internistička služba, Odsek invazivne kardiologije, Zaječar

e-adresa: dusan.bastac@gmail.com

Sažetak

Iako je engleski lekar Heberden opisao anginu pektoris (AP) još pre 2 i po veka, naše razumevanje ovog sindroma, kako uzroka, optimalnog dijagnostičkog pristupa tako i lečenja, nastavlja da se razvija. Novi vodič Evropskog udruženja kardiologa iz 2019 godine donosi pre svega promenu paradigme za stabilnu koronarnu bolest (SKB) u sveobuhvatni termin hronični koronarni sindromi (HKS), koja suštinski znači da hronična koronarna bolest (HKB) ili ishemična bolest srca (IBS) ima kompleksne kliničke scenarije i može imati periode nestabilnosti u bilo kojoj evolucionoj fazi. Rezultati esencijalne COURAGE studije te najnovijih studija: ISHEMIA, ORBITA i metanaliza o HKS kao i ključne poruke Evropskog Vodiča za dijagnostiku i lečenje hroničnih koronarnih sindroma (HKS) bacaju svetlo na problematiku koronarne bolesti, bolesti koja još uvek prednjači u svetskom mortalitetu. Koronarna bolest (KB) ima duge stabilne perode ali zbog akutnih aterotrombotskih događaja, erozije ili rupture aterosklerotskog plaka može preći u neki od akutnih koronarnih sindroma (AKS). Bolest je hronična, najčešće progresivna i zato ozbiljna čak i u asimptomatskim fazama. Dinamična priroda KB ispoljava se u različitim kliničkim prezentacijama, koje kategorizujemo u bilo akutne, bilo hronične koronarne sindrome. Promena paradigme naglašava činjenicu da dinamički procesi akumulacije u aterosklerotske plakove i funkcionalne alteracije koronarne cirkulacije, mogu biti modifikovani promenom životnih navika, farmakološkom terapijom i revaskularizacijom miokarda (RM), koje dovode do stabilizacije ili regresije bolesti ali nažalost ne i do potpunog izlečenja. Od kardinalnog značaja je pažljiva evaluacija anamneze, karakterizacija anginoznih i drugih simptoma i evaluacija rizik faktora i manifestacija predhodnih kardiovaskularnih bolesti (KVB), kao i procena adekvatnosti fizičke aktivnosti i tolerancije napora. U sadašnjem vodiču za HKS je prepoznato 6 vodećih i najčešćih kliničkih sindroma-scenarija : 1. Pacijenti sa suspektnom KB i stabilnom anginom pektoris i/ili dispnejom na napor; 2. Pacijenti sa novonastalom srčanom insuficijencijom (SI) ili disfunkcijom leve komore (DLK) i suspektnom KB; 3. Asimptomatski i simptomatski bolesnici sa stabilizovanim simptomima koji traju manje od jedne 1 godine posle AKS ili skorašnje revaskularizacije miokarda (KRM); 4. Asimptomatski i simptomatski pacijenti više od 1 godine protekle posle AKS ili RM; 5. Pacijenti sa anginom pektoris i suspektnom vazospastičnom ili mikrovaskularnom bolešću; 6. Asimptomatske osobe u kojih je KB otkrivena na skriningu. Svaki od ovih scenarija je klasifikovan kao HKS i posledice su različitih evolucionih faza hronične KB, te imaju različit rizik za buduće neželjene kardiovaskularne (KV) događaje. Pretest verovatnoća (PTP) koronarne bolesti, bazirana na starosti, polu i kvalitetima simptoma, podvrgnuta je reviziji i izmenjena u odnosu na predhodni vodič iz 2013. godine. Uveden je i novi termin: Klinička verovatnoća KB (KPKB) koji uključuje kako PTP tako i razne rizik faktore aterosklerotske KB i služi da isključi ili potvrdi sumnju na KB. Opšti metodološki pristup za inicijalnu dijagnozu za pacijente sa AP i suspektnom opstruktivnom KB uključuje 6 koraka. KORAK 1-Procena simptoma i znakova za identifikaciju pacijenata sa mogućom nestabilnom AP i drugim formama AKS; KORAK 2 je procena opšteg stanja i kvaliteta života koji odlučuju o planiranju lečenja; KORAK 3 uključuje osnovne dijagnostičke procedure i procenu funkcije leve komore (LK) srca; KORAK 4 čini odredivanje Pre-test i Kliničke verovatnoće opstruktivne KB; KORAK 5 je izbor dijagnostičkog testa fizičkim ili farmakološkim opterećenjem putem EKG i vizuelizacionih (slikovnih, imidžing) metoda uključujući MSCT (MDCT) koronarnu angiografiju (CTKA, CTA) za ustanovljavanje diagnoze KB. Na kraju, KORAK 6 je procena rizika od neželjenih KV događaja, posebno mortaliteta i na bazi toga donošenje definitivne terapijske odluka uz invazivnu koronarografiju (ICA) i eventualnu RM. Ako opstruktivna KB ne može biti isključena kliničkom evaluacijom, radi se bilo neinvazivni funkcionalni imidžing test bilo anatomski imidžing putem CTKA kao inicijalni test za isključenje ili potvrdu dijagnoze KB. Za odluku o RM treba razmotriti i anatomsku i funkcionalnu procenu, izuzev kod teških koronarnih stenoza >90%. Visok rizik neželjenih KV događaja identifikuje pacijente koji bi imali veliku prognostičku korist od RM, čak i ako su asiptomatski. Uloga revaskularizacije miokarda (RM) je stavljena u kontekst novijih dokaza koji se odnose na prognostičku ulogu perkutanih koronarnih intervencija (PCI) ili koronarnog arterijskog premošćavanja graftom (CABG) u ovoj niskorizičnoj populaciji. RM je rezervisana za pacijente gde postoje jaki dokazi da bi se njom poboljšala prognoza na bazi dokaza regionalne ishemije perfuzionim imidžingom. Pacijenti sa visokim rizikom -mortalitetom od 3% godišnje i više podvrgavaju se frakcionoj rezervi koronarnog protoka (FFR) ili koronarnoj rezervi protoka (CFR) zbog RM čak i ako nemaju simptome. Primena zdravog načina života smanjuje rizik od naknadnih neželjenih KV događaja i spada u adekvatnu terapiju sekundarne prevencije. Neophodna je redovna vakcinacija protiv gripa kod svih sa HKS. Optimalnoj medikalnoj terapiji (OMT): nefarmakološkoj i farmakološkoj terapiji HKS poklanja se ogromna pažnja kao glavnoj vrsti lečenja HKS, a ne RM. Istaknuta je savremena uloga anti-ishemijskih (antianginalnih lekova): Prve linijebetablokatori (BB) i antagonisti kalcijuma (CCB) uz sublingvalni nitroglicerin, i Druge linijedugodelujući nitrati (LAN), uz novije opcije: ivabradin, nikorandil, trimetazidine, ranolazine, alopuronol i drugo. Lekovi koji poboljšavaju prognozu HKS jesu statini i acetilsalicilna kiselina (ASA) i drugi antitrombocitni lekovi i od skora male doze rivaroksabana a dodatno inhibitori angiotensin konvertaze (ACEI) i ponovo BB u specifičnim indikacijama. Anti-ishemijski tretman mora se prilagoditi pojedinačnom pacijentu na osnovu komorbiditeta, druge konkomitantne terapije, očekivane tolerancije i pridržavanja i sklonosti pacijenta. Izbor anti-ishemijskih lekova za lečenje HKS-a treba da bude prilagođen srčanom ritmu, krvnom pritisku i funkciji srca. BB i ACEI se preporučuju pacijentima sa DLK ili SI sa smanjenom ejekcionom frakcijom leve komore (HFrEF). Antitrombotska terapija je ključni deo sekundarne prevencije kod pacijenata sa HKS-om. Pacijente sa prethodnim infarktom miokarda, koji su pod visokim rizikom od ishemijskih događaja i niskim rizikom od smrtnog krvarenja, trebalo bi razmotriti dugoročnu dvostruku antiagregacionu terapiju aspirinom i bilo inhibitorom P2Y12 receptora ili rivaroksabanom sa vrlo malim dozama, osim ako nemaju indikacija za oralnu antikoagulaciju kao što je atrijalna fibrilacija (AF). Inhibitori protonske pumpe preporučuju se kod pacijenata koji primaju i samo aspirin ili kombinaciju antitrombotske terapije koji su pod rizikom od gastrointestinalnog krvarenja. Statini se preporučuju svim pacijentima sa HKS-om bez obzira na nivo LDL. ACEI (ili blokatori receptora angiotenzina-ARB) preporučuju se u prisustvu SI, dijabetesa i hipertenzije i treba ih razmotriti kod pacijenata sa visokim rizikom za neželjene događaje.

Ključne reči

angina pektoris/stabilna; Angina Pektoris/Nestabilna; Mikrovaskularna angina; angina pektoris sa normalnim koronarnim arteriogramom (INOCA); ishemijska bolest srca; koronarna bolest; Akutni koronarni sindrom; Infarkt miokarda; Ishemija miokarda/dijagnoza/prevencija i kontrola/farmakoterapija; Revaskularizacija miokarda/perkutana koronarna intervencija/CABG

Reference

Novododat članak: provera, normiranje i linkovanje referenci u toku.
Juhani Knuuti (Chairperson), William Wijns (Chairperson), Antti Saraste, Davide Capodanno, Emanuele Barbato, Christian Funck-Brentano, Eva Prescott, Robert F. Storey, Christi Deaton, Thomas Cuisset et al. 2019 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of chronic coronary syndromes. European Heart Journal 2019:00, 1-71. ESC guidelines doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehz425
Ibanez B, James S, Agewall S, Antunes MJ, Bucciarelli-Ducci C, Bueno H, Caforio ALP, Crea F, et al. 2017 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation: The Task Force for the management of ESC Guidelines. the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2018; 39:119-177
Roffi M, Patrono C, Collet JP, Mueller C, Valgimigli M, Andreotti F, Bax JJ, et al. 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: Task Force for the Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients Presenting without Persistent ST-Segment Elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2016; 37:267-315
Gilles Montalescot, Udo Sechtem, Stephan Achenbach, Felicita Andreotti, Chris Arden, Andrzej Budaj et al. 2013 ESC guidelines on the management of stable coronary artery disease. European Heart Journal 2013; 34:2949-3003
Bastać D, Milošević A, Radulović N, et al. Incidenca i karakteristike akutnog infarka miokarda u Zdravstvenom centru Zaječar u periodu 1980-2000. ČASOPIS URGENTNE MEDICINE 2002; Suppl 1:4-5
Piepoli MF, Hoes AW, Agewall S, Albus C, Brotons C, Catapano AL et al. 2016 European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: The Sixth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice Developed with the special contribution of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation (EACPR). Eur Heart J 2016; 37:2315-2381
Ong P, Camici PG, Beltrame JF, Crea F, Shimokawa H, Sechtem U, Kaski JC, Bairey Merz CN; Coronary Vasomotion Disorders International Study Group (COVADIS). International standardization of diagnostic criteria for microvascular angina. Int J Cardiol 2018; 250:1620
Mygind ND, Michelsen MM, Pena A, Frestad D, Dose N, Aziz A, et al. Coronary microvascular function and cardiovascular risk factors in women with angina pectoris and no obstructive coronary artery disease: the iPOWER study. J Am Heart Assoc 2016; 5:e003-064
Crea F, Camici PG, Bairey Merz CN. Coronary microvascular dysfunction: an update. Eur Heart J 2014; 35:1101-1111
Beltrame JF, Crea F, Kaski JC, Ogawa H, Ong P, Sechtem U, Shimokawa H, Bairey Merz CN. Coronary Vasomotion Disorders International Study Group (COVADIS). International standardization of diagnostic criteria for vasospastic angina. Eur Heart J 2017; 38:2565-2568
Ong P, Athanasiadis A, Perne A, Mahrholdt H, Schaufele T, Hill S, Sechtem U. Coronary vasomotor abnormalities in patients with stable angina after successful stent implantation but without in-stent restenosis. Clin Res Cardiol 2014; 103:11-19
Tsuburaya R, Takahashi J, Nakamura A, Nozaki E, Sugi M, Yamamoto Y, et al. NOVEL Investigators. Beneficial effects of longacting nifedipine on coronary vasomotion abnormalities after drug-eluting stent implantation: the NOVEL study. Eur Heart J 2016; 37:2713-2721
JCS Joint Working Group. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of patients with vasospastic angina (Coronary Spastic Angina) (JCS 2013). Circ J 2014; 78:2779-2801
A De Vita A, Milo M, Sestito A, Lamendola P, Lanza GA, Crea F. Association of coronary microvascular dysfunction with restenosis of left anterior descending coronary artery disease treated by percutaneous intervention. Int J Cardiol. 2016 Jun 14; 219:322-325
Reeh J, Therming CB, Heitmann M, Hojberg S, Sorum C, Bech J, Husum D, Dominguez H, Sehestedt T, Hermann T, Hansen KW, Simonsen L, Galatius S, Prescott E. Prediction of obstructive coronary artery disease and prognosis in patients with suspected stable angina. Eur Heart J 2018; 40:1426-1435
Maron DJ, Boden WE, O'Rourke RA, Hartigan PM, Calfas KJ, Mancini GB, et al. COURAGE Trial Research Group. Intensive multifactorial intervention for stable coronary artery disease: optimal medical therapy in the COURAGE (Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 55:1348-1358
Rotenstein LS, Huckman RS, Wagle NW. Making patients and doctors happier -the potential of patient-reported outcomes. N Engl J Med 2017; 377:1309-1312
Chow CK, Jolly S, Rao-Melacini P, Fox KA, Anand SS, Yusuf S. Association of diet, exercise, and smoking modification with risk of early cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 2010; 121:750-758
Booth JN III, Levitan EB, Brown TM, Farkouh ME, Safford MM, Muntner P. Effect of sustaining lifestyle modifications (nonsmoking, weight reduction, physical activity, and mediterranean diet) after healing of myocardial infarction, percutaneous intervention, or coronary bypass (from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study). Am J Cardiol 2014; 113:1933-1940
Giannuzzi P, Temporelli PL, Marchioli R, Maggioni AP, Balestroni G, Ceci V et al. GOSPEL Investigators. Global secondary prevention strategies to limit event recurrence after myocardial infarction: results of the GOSPEL study, a multicenter, randomized controlled trial from the Italian Cardiac Rehabilitation Network. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168:2194-2204
Keteyian SJ, Brawner CA, Savage PD, Ehrman JK, Schairer J, Divine G, Aldred H, Ophaug K, Ades PA. Peak aerobic capacity predicts prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease. Am Heart J 2008; 156:292-300
Bastać D. Novi aspekti dijagnostičke i prognostičke procene stabilne koronarne bolesti -revidirani dijagnostički i prognostički algoritmi u 3 koraka. Zbornik abstrakta simpozijuma: STABILNA KORONARNA BOLEST-Šta novo donosi evropski vodič 2013, Zaječar, 2014.god, strana 6-16
Williams RP, Manou-Stathopoulou V, Redwood SR, Marber MS. 'Warm-up Angina': harnessing the benefits of exercise and myocardial ischaemia. Heart 2014; 100:106-114
Cohn PF, Fox KM, Daly C. Silent myocardial ischemia. Circulation 2003; 108:1263-1277
Davies RF, Goldberg AD, Forman S, Pepine CJ, Knatterud GL, Geller N, et al. Asymptomatic Cardiac Ischemia Pilot (ACIP) study two-year follow-up: outcomes of patients randomized to initial strategies of medical therapy versus revascularization. Circulation 1997; 95:2037-2043
Stone PH, Chaitman BR, Forman S, Andrews TC, Bittner V, Bourassa MG. Prognostic significance of myocardial ischemia detected by ambulatory electrocardiography, exercise treadmill testing, and electrocardiogram at rest to predict cardiac events by one year (the Asymptomatic Cardiac Ischemia Pilot [ACIP]study). Am J Cardiol 1997; 80:1395-1401
Dušan Bastać. Uticaj veličine QRS skora na težinu ventrikularnih aritmija u akutnoj fazi infarkta miokarda. Timocki Med. Glasnik 1989; 14:229-233
Androulakis A, Aznaouridis KA, Aggeli CJ, Roussakis GN, Michaelides AP, Kartalis AN. Transient ST-segment depression during paroxysms of atrial fibrillation in otherwise normal individuals: relation with underlying coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 50:1909-1911
Pradhan R, Chaudhary A, Donato AA. Predictive accuracy of ST depression during rapid atrial fibrillation on the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Am J Emerg Med 2012; 30:1042-1047
Raščanin Anastasija, Aranđelović Ivana, Bastać Mila, Bastać Dušan. Uticaj metaboličkog sindroma na strukturne anomalije, sistolnu i dijastolnu funkciju leve komore određivanu ehokardiografijom u bolesnika sa atrijalnom fibrilacijom. Timočki medicinski glasnik 2017; 42(3):132-138
Greenwood JP, Ripley DP, Berry C, McCann GP, Plein S, Bucciarelli-Ducci, et al. CE-MARC 2 Investigators. Effect of care guided by cardiovascular magnetic resonance, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, or NICE guidelines on subsequent unnecessary angiography rates: the CE-MARC 2 randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2016; 316:1051-1060
Diamond GA, Forrester JS. Analysis of probability as an aid in the clinical diagnosis of coronary-artery disease. N Engl J Med 1979; 300:1350-1358
Foldyna B, Udelson JE, Karady J, Banerji D, Lu MT, Mayrhofer T, et al. Pretest probability for patients with suspected obstructive coronary artery disease: reevaluating Diamond-Forrester for the contemporary era and clinical implications: insights from the PROMISE trial. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2018; 20:574 581
Genders TS, Steyerberg EW, Alkadhi H, Leschka S, Desbiolles L, Nieman K et al. A clinical prediction rule for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease: validation, updating, and extension. Eur Heart J 2011; 32:1316-1330
Daly C, Norrie J, Murdoch DL, Ford I, Dargie HJ, Fox K; TIBET (Total Ischaemic Burden European Trial) study group. The value of routine non-invasive tests to predict clinical outcome in stable angina. Eur Heart J 2003; 24:532-540
Budoff MJ, Mayrhofer T, Ferencik M, Bittner D, Lee KL, Lu MT, Coles A, Jang J, Krishnam M, Douglas PS, Hoffmann U. PROMISE Investigators. Prognostic value of coronary artery calcium in the PROMISE study (Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain). Circulation 2017; 136:1993-2005
Villines TC, Hulten EA, Shaw LJ, Goyal M, Dunning A, Achenbach S, et al. CONFIRM Registry Investigators. Prevalence and severity of coronary artery disease and adverse events among symptomatic patients with coronary artery calcification scores of zero undergoing coronary computed tomography angiography: results from the CONFIRM (Coronary CT Angiography Evaluation for Clinical Outcomes: An International Multicenter registry. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58:2533-2540
Juarez-Orozco LE, Saraste A, Capodanno D, Prescott E, Ballo H, Bax JJ, Wijns W, Knuuti J. Impact of a decreasing pre-test probability on the performance of diagnostic tests for coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2019; doi: 10.1093/ehjci/jez054
Versteylen MO, Joosen IA, Shaw LJ, Narula J, Hofstra L. Comparison of Framingham, PROCAM, SCORE, and Diamond Forrester to predict coronary atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. J Nucl Cardiol 2011; 18:904-911
Fordyce CB, Douglas PS, Roberts RS, Hoffmann U, Al-Khalidi HR, Patel MR, Granger CB, Kostis J, Mark DB, Lee KL, Udelson JE; Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE) Investigators. Identification of patients with stable chest pain deriving minimal value from noninvasive testing: the PROMISE minimal-risk tool, a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Cardiol 2017; 2:400 408
Jensen JM, Voss M, Hansen VB, Andersen LK, Johansen PB, Munkholm H, Norgaard BL. Risk stratification of patients suspected of coronary artery disease: comparison of five different models. Atherosclerosis 2012; 220:557-562
Siontis GC, Mavridis D, Greenwood JP, Coles B, Nikolakopoulou A, Juni P, Salanti G, Windecker S. Outcomes of non-invasive diagnostic modalities for the detection of coronary artery disease: network meta-analysis of diagnostic randomized controlled trials. BMJ 2018; 360: k504
De Bruyne B, Pijls NH, Kalesan B, Barbato E, Tonino PA, Piroth Z, Jagic N, Mobius-Winkler S, Rioufol G, Witt N, Kala P, MacCarthy P, Engstrom T, Oldroyd KG, Mavromatis K, Manoharan G, Verlee P, Frobert O, Curzen N, Johnson JB, Juni P, Fearon WF. FAME 2 Trial Investigators. Fractional flow reserve-guided PCI versus medical therapy in stable coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2012; 367:991-1001
Tonino PA, De Bruyne B, Pijls NH, Siebert U, Ikeno F, van' t Veer M, Klauss V, Manoharan G, Engstrom T, Oldroyd KG, Ver Lee PN, MacCarthy PA, Fearon WF; FAME Study Investigators. Fractional flow reserve versus angiography for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention. N Engl J Med 2009; 360:213-224
Knuuti J, Ballo H, Juarez-Orozco LE, Saraste A, Kolh P, Rutjes AWS, Juni P. Windecker S, Bax JJ, Wijns W. The performance of non-invasive tests to rule-in and rule-out significant coronary artery stenosis in patients with stable angina: a meta-analysis focused on post-test disease probability. Eur Heart J 2018; 39:3322-3330
Tonino PA, Fearon WF, De Bruyne B, Oldroyd KG, Leesar MA, Ver Lee PN, Maccarthy PA, Van't Veer M, Pijls NH. Angiographic versus functional severity of coronary artery stenoses in the FAME study fractional flow reserve versus angiography in multivessel evaluation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 55:2816-2821
Hoffmann U, Ferencik M, Udelson JE, Picard MH, Truong QA, Patel MR, Huang M, Pencina M, Mark DB, Heitner JF, Fordyce CB, Pellikka PA, Tardif JC, Budoff M, Nahhas G, Chow B, Kosinski AS, Lee KL, Douglas PS; PROMISE Investigators. Prognostic value of noninvasive cardiovascular testing in patients with stable chest pain: insights from the PROMISE trial (Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain). Circulation 2017;135: 2320-2332
Dusan Bastac, Zoran Joksimović et al. Dipirydamole stress echocardiography in the evaluation of myocardial ischemia in obese subjects with hypertension. European Journal of Echocardiography 2002; 3 (Suppl I)
Mitov V, Aleksic Z, Paunkovic N, Bastać D. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in selection of patients with positive and inconclusive finding of ECG exercise stress tests. European Heart Journal 2007; 28(Supp l):625
Lubbers M, Dedic A, Coenen A, Galema T, Akkerhuis J, Bruning T, Krenning B, Musters P, Ouhlous M, Liem A, Niezen A, Hunink M, de Feijter P, Nieman K. Calcium imaging and selective computed tomography angiography in comparison to functional testing for suspected coronary artery disease: the multicentre randomized CRESCENT trial. Eur Heart J 2016; 37:1232-1243
Gueret P, Deux JF, Bonello L, Sarran A, Tron C, Christiaens L. Diagnostic performance of computed tomography coronary angiography (from the prospective national multicenter multivendor EVASCAN study). Am J Cardiol 2013; 111:471-478
Neumann FJ, Sousa-Uva M, Ahlsson A, Alfonso F, Banning AP, Benedetto U, Byrne RA, Collet JP, Falk V, Head SJ, Juni P, Kastrati A, Koller A, Kristensen SD, Niebauer J, Richter DJ, Seferovic PM, Sibbing D, Stefanini GG, Windecker S, Yadav R, Zembala MO. 2018 ESC/EACTS Guidelines on myocardial revascularization. Eur Heart J 2019; 40:87-165
Escaned J, Echavarria-Pinto M, Garcia-Garcia HM, van de Hoef TP, de Vries T, Kaul P, ADVISE II Study Group. Prospective assessment of the diagnostic accuracy of instantaneous wave-free ratio to assess coronary stenosis relevance: results of ADVISEII international, multicenter study (A Denosine Vasodilator Independent Stenosis Evaluation II). JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2015; 8:824-833
Toth G, Hamilos M, Pyxaras S, Mangiacapra F, Nelis O, De Vroey F, et al. Evolving concepts of angiogram: fractional flow reserve discordances in 4000 coronary stenoses. Eur Heart J 2014; 35:2831-2838
Jeremias A, Maehara A, Genereux P, Asrress KN, Berry C, De Bruyne B, et al. Multicenter core laboratory comparison of the instantaneous wave-free ratio and resting Pd/Pa with fractional flow reserve: the RESOLVE study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014; 63:1253-1261
Van Belle E, Rioufol G, Pouillot C, Cuisset T, Bougrini K, Teiger E, et al; Investigators of the Registre Franc¸ais de la FFRR3F. Outcome impact of coronary revascularization strategy reclassification with fractional flow reserve at time of diagnostic angiography: insights from a large French multicenter fractional flow reserve registry. Circulation 2014; 129:173-185
Julien Adjedj, Bernard De Bruyne, Vincent Floré, Giuseppe Di Gioia, Angela Ferrara, Mariano Pellicano et al. Significance of Intermediate Values of Fractional Flow Reserve in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. Circulation 2016;133(5):502-8
Collet C, Onuma Y, Andreini D, Sonck J, Pompilio G, Mushtaq S, et al. Coronary computed tomography angiography for heart team decision-making in multivessel coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J 2018; 39:3689-3698
Prochaska JJ, Benowitz NL. The past, present, and future of nicotine addiction therapy. Annu Rev Med 2016; 67:467-486
Barth J, Jacob T, Daha I, Critchley JA. Psychosocial interventions for smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015; 7:CD006886
Freeman AM, Morris PB, Barnard N, Esselstyn CB, Ros E, Agatston A, et al. Trending cardiovascular nutrition controversies. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017; 69:1172-1187
Khan SS, Ning H, Wilkins JT, Allen N, Carnethon M, Berry JD, Sweis RN, Lloyd-Jones DM. Association of body mass index with lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease and compression of morbidity. JAMA Cardiol 2018; 3:280-287
Pack QR, Rodriguez-Escudero JP, Thomas RJ, Ades PA, West CP, Somers VK, Lopez-Jimenez F. The prognostic importance of weight loss in coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mayo Clin Proc 2014; 89:1368-1377
Fiuza-Luces C, Garatachea N, Berger NA, Lucia A. Exercise is the real polypill. Physiology (Bethesda) 2013; 28:330-358
Bruning RS, Sturek M. Benefits of exercise training on coronary blood flow in coronary artery disease patients. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2015; 57:443-453
Cheng W, Zhang Z, Cheng W, Yang C, Diao L, Liu W. Associations of leisuretime physical activity with cardiovascular mortality: a systematic review and metaanalysis of 44 prospective cohort studies. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2018; 25:1864-1872
Lahtinen M, Toukola T, Junttila MJ, Piira OP, Lepojarvi S, Kaariainen M, Huikuri HV, Tulppo MP, Kiviniemi AM. Effect of changes in physical activity on risk for cardiac death in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 2018; 121:143-148
Stewart RAH, Held C, Hadziosmanovic N, Armstrong PW, Cannon CP, Granger CB, et al; STABILITY Investigators. Physical activity and mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017; 70:1689-1700
Anderson L, Thompson DR, Oldridge N, Zwisler AD, Rees K, Martin N, Taylor RS. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for coronary heart disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016;1:CD001800
Rauch B, Davos CH, Doherty P, Saure D, Metzendorf MI, Salzwedel A, Voller H, Jensen K, Schmid JP. The prognostic effect of cardiac rehabilitation in the era of acute revascularization and statin therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and non-randomized studies -The Cardiac Rehabilitation Outcome Study (CROS). Eur J Prev Cardiol 2016; 23:1914-1939
de Vries H, Kemps HM, van Engen-Verheul MM, Kraaijenhagen RA, Peek N. Cardiac rehabilitation and survival in a large representative community cohort of Dutch patients. Eur Heart J 2015; 36:1519-1528
Benzer W, Rauch B, Schmid JP, Zwisler AD, Dendale P, Davos CH, Kouidi E, Simon A, Abreu A, Pogosova N, Gaita D, Miletic B, Bonner G, Ouarrak T, McGee H; EuroCaReD study group. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation in twelve European countries results of the European cardiac rehabilitation registry. Int J Cardiol 2017; 228:58-67
Rudisch B, Nemeroff CB. Epidemiology of comorbid coronary artery disease and depression. Biol Psychiatry 2003; 54:227-240
Baumeister H, Hutter N, Bengel J. Psychological and pharmacological interventions for depression in patients with coronary artery disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 9:CD008012
Richards SH, Anderson L, Jenkinson CE, Whalley B, Rees K, Davies P, Bennett P, Liu Z, West R, Thompson DR, Taylor RS. Psychological interventions for coronary heart disease: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2018; 25:247-259
Rutledge T, Redwine LS, Linke SE, Mills PJ. A meta-analysis of mental health treatments and cardiac rehabilitation for improving clinical outcomes and depression among patients with coronary heart disease. Psychosom Med 2013; 75:335-349
Brook RD, Newby DE, Rajagopalan S. Air pollution and cardiometabolic disease:an update and call for clinical trials. Am J Hypertens 2017; 31:110
Munzel T, Schmidt FP, Steven S, Herzog J, Daiber A, Sorensen M. Environmental noise and the cardiovascular system. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018; 71:688-697
Steinke EE, Jaarsma T, Barnason SA, Byrne M, Doherty S, Dougherty CM, et al. Sexual counselling for individuals with cardiovascular disease and their partners: a consensus document from the American Heart Association and the ESC Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions (CCNAP). Eur Heart J 2013;34:3217-3235
Stein R, Sardinha A, Araujo CG. Sexual activity and heart patients: a contemporary perspective. Can J Cardiol 2016; 32:410-420
Chowdhury R, Khan H, Heydon E, Shroufi A, Fahimi S, Moore C, Stricker B, Mendis S, Hofman A, Mant J, Franco OH. Adherence to cardiovascular therapy: a meta-analysis of prevalence and clinical consequences. Eur Heart J 2013; 34:2940-2948
Gnjidic D, Bennett A, Le Couteur DG, Blyth FM, Cumming RG, Waite L, Handelsman D, Naganathan V, Matthews S, Hilmer SN. Ischemic heart disease, prescription of optimal medical therapy and geriatric syndromes in communitydwelling older men: a population-based study. Int J Cardiol 2015; 192:49-55
Mohammed S, Arabi A, El-Menyar A, Abdulkarim S, AlJundi A, Alqahtani A, Arafa S, Al Suwaidi J. Impact of polypharmacy on adherence to evidence-based medication in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2016; 14:388-393
Wimmer BC, Cross AJ, Jokanovic N, Wiese MD, George J, Johnell K, Diug B, Bell JS. Clinical outcomes associated with medication regimen complexity in older people: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc 2017; 65:747-753
Nieuwlaat R, Wilczynski N, Navarro T, Hobson N, Jeffery R, Keepanasseril A, Agoritsas T, Mistry N, Iorio A, Jack S, Sivaramalingam B, Iserman E, Mustafa RA, Jedraszewski D, Cotoi C, Haynes RB. Interventions for enhancing medication adherence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;11:CD000011
Demonceau J, Ruppar T, Kristanto P, Hughes DA, Fargher E, Kardas P, De Geest S, Dobbels F, Lewek P, Urquhart J, Vrijens B; ABC project team. Identification and assessment of adherence-enhancing interventions in studies assessing medication adherence through electronically compiled drug dosing histories: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Drugs 2013; 73:545-562
Husted SE, Ohman EM. Pharmacological and emerging therapies in the treatment of chronic angina. Lancet 2015; 386:691-701
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Stable angina: management. Clinical guideline [CG126]. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg126 (28 March 2019)
Klein WW, Jackson G, Tavazzi L. Efficacy of monotherapy compared with combined antianginal drugs in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris: a meta-analysis. Coron Artery Dis 2002; 13:427-436
Rousan TA, Mathew ST, Thadani U. Drug therapy for stable angina pectoris. Drugs 2017; 77:265-284
Pehrsson SK, Ringqvist I, Ekdahl S, Karlson BW, Ulvenstam G, Persson S. Monotherapy with amlodipine or atenolol versus their combination in stable angina pectoris. Clin Cardiol 2000; 23:763-770
Emanuelsson H, Egstrup K, Nikus K, Ellstrom J, Glud T, Pater C, Scheibel M, Tisell A, Totterman KJ, Forsby M. Antianginal efficacy of the combination of felodipinemetoprolol 10/100 mg compared with each drug alone in patients with stable effort-induced angina pectoris: a multicenter parallel group study. The TRAFFIC Study Group. Am Heart J 1999; 137:854-862
Belsey J, Savelieva I, Mugelli A, Camm AJ. Relative efficacy of antianginal drugs used as add-on therapy in patients with stable angina: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2015; 22:837-848
Wight LJ, VandenBurg MJ, Potter CE, Freeth CJ. A large scale comparative study in general practice with nitroglycerin spray and tablet formulations in elderly patients with angina pectoris. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1992; 42:341-342
Diaz A, Bourassa MG, Guertin MC, Tardif JC. Long-term prognostic value of resting heart rate in patients with suspected or proven coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J 2005; 26:967-974
Jouven X, Empana JP, Schwartz PJ, Desnos M, Courbon D, Ducimetiere P. Heart-rate profile during exercise as a predictor of sudden death. N Engl J Med 2005;3 52:1951-1958
Bangalore S, Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Weber MA, Boden WE, Hamm CW, Montalescot G, Hsu A, Fox KA, Lincoff AM. beta-blockers and cardiovascular events in patients with and without myocardial infarction: post hoc analysis from the CHARISMA trial. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2014; 7:872-881
Andersson C, Shilane D, Go AS, Chang TI, Kazi D, Solomon MD, Boothroyd DB, Hlatky MA. b-blocker therapy and cardiac events among patients with newly diagnosed coronary heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014; 64:247-252
Hwang D, Lee JM, Kim HK, Choi KH, Rhee TM, Park J, Park TK, Yang JH, Song YB, Choi JH, Hahn JY, Choi SH, Koo BK, Kim YJ, Chae SC, Cho MC, Kim CJ, Gwon HC, Jeong MH, Kim HS; KAMIR Investigators. Prognostic impact of betablocker dose after acute myocardial infarction. Circ J 2019; 83:410-417
Dahl Aarvik M, Sandven I, Dondo TB, Gale CP, Ruddox V, Munkhaugen J, Atar D, Otterstad JE. Effect of oral betablocker treatment on mortality in contemporary postmyocardial infarction patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother 2019; 5:1220
Bangalore S, Steg G, Deedwania P, Crowley K, Eagle KA, Goto S, Ohman EM, Cannon CP, Smith SC, Zeymer U, Hoffman EB, Messerli FH, Bhatt DL; REACH Registry Investigators. b-Blocker use and clinical outcomes in stable outpatients with and without coronary artery disease. JAMA 2012; 308:1340-1349
Padala SK, Lavelle MP, Sidhu MS, Cabral KP, Morrone D, Boden WE, Toth PP. Antianginal therapy for stable ischemic heart disease: a contemporary review. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2017; 22:499-510
Poole-Wilson PA, Lubsen J, Kirwan BA, van Dalen FJ, Wagener G, Danchin N, et al. Coronary disease Trial Investigating Outcome with Nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system investigators. Effect of long-acting nifedipine on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in patients with stable angina requiring treatment (ACTION trial): randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2004; 364:849-857
Nissen SE, Tuzcu EM, Libby P, Thompson PD, Ghali M, Garza D, Berman L, Shi H, Buebendorf E, Topol EJ; CAMELOT Investigators. Effect of antihypertensive agents on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary disease and normal blood pressure: the CAMELOT study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004; 292:2217-2225
Heidenreich PA, McDonald KM, Hastie T, Fadel B, Hagan V, Lee BK, Hlatky MA. Meta-analysis of trials comparing betablockers, calcium antagonists, and nitrates for stable angina. JAMA 1999; 281:1927-1936
K Mohee, SB Wheatcroft. Optimal Medical Therapy and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Stable Angina: Why Patients Should 'Be Taking' and 'Keep Taking' the Tablets. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2014; 39(4):331-3
Bastać D. Farmakološka terapija stabilne koronarne bolesti-u fokusu podgrupe s terapijskim izazovom. Zbornik abstrakta STABILNA KORONARNA BOLEST Šta novo donosi evropski vodič 2013, Zaječar, 2014.god, strana 22-24
IONA Study Group. Effect of nicorandil on coronary events in patients with stable angina: The Impact of Nicorandil in Angina (IONA) randomised trial. Lancet 2002; 359:1269-1275
Morrow DA, Scirica BM, Karwatowska-Prokopczuk E, Murphy SA, Budaj A, Braunwald E, et al. MERLIN-TIMI 36 Trial Investigators. Effects of ranolazine on recurrent cardiovascular events in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: the MERLIN-TIMI 36 randomized trial. JAMA 2007; 297:1775-1783
Wilson SR, Scirica BM, Braunwald E, Murphy SA, Karwatowska-Prokopczuk E, et al. Efficacy of ranolazine in patients with chronic angina observations from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled MERLIN-TIMI (Metabolic Efficiency with Ranolazine for Less Ischemia in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes) 36 Trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 53:1510-1516
McCarthy CP, Mullins KV, Kerins DM. The role of trimetazidine in cardiovascular disease: beyond an antianginal agent. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother 2016; 2:266 -272
European Medicines Agency. Questions and answers on the review of medicines containing trimetazidine (20 mg tablets, 35 mg modified release tablet and 20 mg/ml oral solution). https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/referral/ questions-answers-review-medicines-containingtrimetazidine-20-mg-tablets-35-mg-modified-release/mloral-solution_en.pdf (28 March 2019)
Noman A, Ang DS, Ogston S, Lang CC, Struthers AD. Effect of high-dose allopurinol on exercise in patients with chronic stable angina: a randomised, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Lancet 2010; 375:2161-2167
Singh JA, Yu S. Allopurinol reduces the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in the elderly: a study of Medicare claims. Arthritis Res Ther 2016; 18:209
Aviv A. Shaul and David Hasdai: Chronic ischaemic heart disease: Pharmacological therapy. IN A. John Camm, Thomas F. Lusher, Gerald Maurer and Patrick W. Serreys, editors. The ESC Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 3rd ed. Oxford University press; 2019. P.1387-1393
Valgimigli M, Bueno H, Byrne RA, Collet JP, Costa F, Jeppsson A. 2017 ESC focused update on dual antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery disease developed in collaboration with EACTS: The Task Force for dual antiplatelet therapy in coronary artery disease of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Eur Heart J 2018; 39:213-260
Bhatt DL, Bonaca MP, Bansilal S, Angiolillo DJ, Cohen M, Storey RF, Im K, Murphy SA, Held P, Braunwald E, Sabatine MS, Steg PG. Reduction in ischemic events with ticagrelor in diabetic patients with prior myocardial infarction in PEGASUS-TIMI 54. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016; 67:2732-2740
Mega JL, Braunwald E, Wiviott SD, Bassand JP, Bhatt DL, Bode C, et al. ATLAS ACS 2TIMI 51 Investigators. Rivaroxaban in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. N Engl J Med 2012; 366:919
Eikelboom JW, Connolly SJ, Bosch J, Dagenais GR, Hart RG, Yusuf S, et al. COMPASS Investigators. Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in stable cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 2017; 377:1319-1330
Al-Lamee R, Thompson D, Dehbi HM, Sen S, Tang K, Davies J, et al; ORBITA investigators. Percutaneous coronary intervention in stable angina (ORBITA): a doubleblind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2018; 391:3140
Trikalinos TA, Alsheikh-Ali AA, Tatsioni A, Nallamothu BK, Kent DM. Percutaneous coronary interventions for nonacute coronary artery disease: a quantitative 20-year synopsis and a network meta-analysis. Lancet 2009; 373:911-918
Stergiopoulos K, Brown DL. Initial coronary stent implantation with medical therapy vs medical therapy alone for stable coronary artery disease: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 2012; 172:312-319
Bangalore S, Pursnani S, Kumar S, Bagos PG. Percutaneous coronary intervention versus optimal medical therapy for prevention of spontaneous myocardial infarction in subjects with stable ischemic heart disease. Circulation 2013; 127:769-781
Windecker S, Stortecky S, Stefanini GG, da Costa BR, Rutjes AW, Di Nisio M, et al. Revascularisation versus medical treatment in patients with stable coronary artery disease: network meta-analysis. BMJ 2014; 348: g3859
Xaplanteris P, Fournier S, Pijls NHJ, Fearon WF, Barbato E, Tonino PAL, et al. FAME 2 Investigators. Five-year outcomes with PCI guided by fractional flow reserve. N Engl J Med 2018; 379:250-259
Franz-Josef Neumann, Miguel Sousa-Uva, Anders Ahlsson, Fernando Alfonso, Adrian P. Banning (UK), Umberto Benedetto et al. 2018 ESC/EACTS Guidelines on myocardial Revascularization. The Task Force on myocardial revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). European Heart Journal (2019) 40, 87-165. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehy394
William E. Boden, M.D., Robert A. O'Rourke, M.D., Koon K. Teo, M.B., B.Ch., Ph.D., Pamela M. Hartigan, Ph.D., David J. Maron, M.D., William J. Kostuk, M.D., ET al. for the COURAGE Trial Research Group. Optimal Medical Therapy with or without PCI for Stable Coronary Disease N Engl J Med 2007; 356:1503-1516. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa070829
Bradley SM, Chan PS, Hartigan PM, Nallamothu BK, Weintraub WS, Sedlis SP, Dada M, Maron DJ, Kostuk WJ, Berman DS, Teo KK, Mancini GB, Boden WE, Spertus JA. Validation of the appropriate use criteria for percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with stable coronary artery disease (from the COURAGE trial). Am J Cardiol. 2015 ;116(2):167-73. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.03.057. Epub 2015 Apr 17
Mancini GBJ, Boden WE, Brooks MM, Vlachos H, Chaitman BR, Frye R, Bittner V, Hartigan PM, Dagenais GR. Impact of treatment strategies on outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus according to presenting angina severity: A pooled analysis of three federally-funded randomized trials. Atherosclerosis. 2018; 277:186-194. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.04.005. Epub 2018 Jun 1
David J. Maron, Judith S. Hochman, Harmony R. Reynolds, Sripal Bangalore, Sean M. O'Brien, William E. Boden, M.D et al., for the ISCHEMIA Research GroupApril 9, 2020. Initial Invasive or Conservative Strategy for Stable Coronary Disease. N Engl J Med 2020; 382:1395-1407. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa191592
International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches -American College of Cardiology 4/21/2020. https://www.acc.org/latest-incardiology/clinical-trials/2019/11/15/17/27/ischemia 1/6
Stephan D. Fihn et al. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, and the American College of Physicians, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons am vodič2012 ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease. JACC 2012; 60:64-144
Ponikowski P, Voors AA, Anker SD, Bueno H, Cleland JGF, Coats AJS et al. 2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J 2016; 37:2129-2200
Van Holten TC, Waanders LF, de Groot PG, Vissers J, Hoefer IE, Pasterkamp G, Prins MW, Roest M. Circulating biomarkers for predicting cardiovascular disease risk; a systematic review and comprehensive overview of metaanalyses. PLoS One 2013; 8: e62080
Hjalmarson A, Goldstein S, Fagerberg B, Wedel H, Waagstein F, Kjekshus J, et al. Effects of controlledreleasemetoprolol on total mortality, hospitalizations, and well-being in patients with heart failure: the Metoprolol CR/XL Randomized Intervention Trial in congestive heart failure (MERIT-HF). MERIT-HF Study Group. JAMA 2000; 283:1295-1302
Packer M, Coats AJ, Fowler MB, Katus HA, Krum H, Mohacsi P, et al. Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival Study Group. Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2001; 344:1651-1658
Dusan Bastać, Vladimir Mitov et al : Comparasion of the effect of Carvediol versus Metoprolol on Sistolic and Diastolic Left Ventricular Function in patients with Ischaemic Dilated cardiomyopathy. Journal of American College of Cardiology 1998; 31:78 C (abstract)
Packer M, Fowler MB, Roecker EB, Coats AJ, Katus HA, Krum H, Mohacsi P, Rouleau JL, Tendera M, Staiger C, Holcslaw TL, Amann-Zalan I, DeMets DL; heart failure: results of the carvedilol prospective randomized cumulative survival (COPERNICUS) study. Circulation 2002; 106:2194-2199
CIBIS-II Investigators and Committees. The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): a randomised trial. Lancet 1999; 353:913
Flather MD, Shibata MC, Coats AJ, Van Veldhuisen DJ, Parkhomenko A, Borbola J, Cohen-Solal A, Dumitrascu D, Ferrari R, Lechat P, Soler-Soler J, Tavazzi L, Spinarova L, Toman J, Bohm M, Anker SD, Thompson SG, Poole-Wilson PA; SENIORS Investigators. Randomized trial to determine the effect of nebivolol on mortality and cardiovascular hospital admission in elderly patientsn with heart failure (SENIORS). Eur Heart J 2005; 26:215-225
Bastać Dušan, Jelenković Bratimirka, Joksimović Zoran, Aleksić Aleksandar. Šta je novo u dijagnostici i lečenju akutne srčane insuficijencije? Timočki medicinski glasnik. 2015;40 (4):281-293
Packer M, O'Connor CM, Ghali JK, Pressler ML, Carson PE, Belkin RN, et al. Effect of amlodipine on morbidity and mortality in severe chronic heart failure. Prospective Randomized Amlodipine Survival Evaluation Study Group. N Engl J Med 1996; 335:1107-1114
Wijeysundera HC, Hansen MS, Stanton E, Cropp AS, Hall C, Dhalla NS, Ghali J, Rouleau JL; PRAISE II Investigators. Neurohormones and oxidative stress in nonischemic cardiomyopathy: relationship to survival and the effect of treatment with amlodipine. Am Heart J 2003; 146:291-297
Faris R, Flather M, Purcell H, Henein M, Poole-Wilson P, Coats A. Current evidence supporting the role of diuretics in heart failure: a meta analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Cardiol 2002; 82:149-158
Dagenais GR, Pogue J, Fox K, Simoons ML, Yusuf S. Angiotensin-convertingenzyme inhibitors in stable vascular disease without left ventricular systolic dysfunction or heart failure: a combined analysis of three trials. Lancet 2006; 368:581-588
Gage RM, Burns KV, Bank AJ. Echocardiographic and clinical response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in heart failure patients with and without previous right ventricular pacing. Eur J Heart Fail 2014; 16:1199-1205
Lindholm D, Lindback J, Armstrong PW, Budaj A, Cannon CP. Biomarker-based risk model to predict cardiovascular mortality in patients with stable coronary disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017; 70:813-826
Eapen DJ, Manocha P, Patel RS, Hammadah M, Veledar E, Wassel C, Nanjundappa RA, Sikora S, Malayter D, Wilson PW, Sperling L, Quyyumi AA, Epstein SE. Aggregate risk score based on markers of inflammation, cell stress, and coagulation is an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; 62:329-337
Bugiardini R, Bairey Merz CN. Angina with "normal" coronary arteries: a changing philosophy. JAMA 2005; 293:477-484
Vermeltfoort IA, Raijmakers PG, Odekerken DA, Kuijper AF, Zwijnenburg A, Teule GJ. Association between anxiety disorder and the extent of ischemia observed in cardiac syndrome X. J Nucl Cardiol 2009; 16:405-410
Ford TJ, Stanley B, Good R, Rocchiccioli P, McEntegart M, Watkins S, et al. Stratified medical therapy using invasive coronary function testing in angina: the CorMicA trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2018; 72:2841-2855
Bastac D. et al. Routine assesment of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in coronary artery disease by Doppler exercise stress testing. European Journal of Echocardiography 2003; 4 (Suppl.1):96
van de Hoef TP, van Lavieren MA, Damman P, Delewi R, Piek MA, Chamuleau SA, Voskuil M, et al. Physiological basis and long-term clinical outcome of discordance between fractional flow reserve and coronary flow velocity reserve in coronary stenoses of intermediate severity. Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2014; 7:301-311
Taqueti VR, Everett BM, Murthy VL, Gaber M, Foster CR, Hainer J, Blankstein R, Dorbala S, Di Carli MF. Interaction of impaired coronary flow reserve and cardiomyocyte injury on adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients without overt coronary artery disease. Circulation 2015; 131:528-535
Murthy VL, Naya M, Foster CR, Gaber M, Hainer J, Klein J, Dorbala S, Blankstein R, Di Carli MF. Association between coronary vascular dysfunction and cardiac mortality in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Circulation 2012; 126:1858-1868
Lee JM, Jung JH, Hwang D, Park J, Fan Y, Na SH, Doh JH, Nam CW, Shin ES, Koo BK. Coronary flow reserve and microcirculatory resistance in patients with intermediate coronary stenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2016; 67:1158-1169
Lee JM, Choi KH, Hwang D, Park J, Jung JH, Kim HY, Jung HW, Cho YK, Yoon HJ, Song YB, Hahn JY, Doh JH, Nam CW, Shin ES, Hur SH, Koo BK. Prognostic implication of thermodilution coronary flow reserve in patients undergoing fractional flow reserve measurement. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2018; 11:1423-1433
Radico F, Cicchitti V, Zimarino M, De Caterina R. Angina pectoris and myocardial ischemia in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease: practical considerations for diagnostic tests. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2014; 7:453-463
Mejia-Renteria H, van der Hoeven N, van de Hoef TP, Heemelaar J, Ryan N, Lerman A, van Royen N, Escaned J. Targeting the dominant mechanism of coronary microvascular dysfunction with intracoronary physiology tests. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2017; 33:1041-1059
Leung M, Juergens CP, Lo ST, Leung DY. Evaluation of coronary microvascular function by left ventricular contractile reserve with low-dose dobutamine echocardiography. EuroIntervention 2014; 9:1202-1209
Sicari R, Rigo F, Cortigiani L, Gherardi S, Galderisi M, Picano E. Additive prognostic value of coronary flow reserve in patients with chest pain syndrome and normal or near-normal coronary arteries. Am J Cardiol 2009; 103:626-631
Echavarria-Pinto M, Escaned J, Macias E, Medina M, Gonzalo N, Petraco R, Sen S, Jimenez-Quevedo P, et al. Disturbed coronary hemodynamics in vessels with intermediate stenoses evaluated with fractional flow reserve: a combined analysis of epicardial and microcirculatory involvement in ischemic heart disease. Circulation 2013; 128:2557-2566
Nolte F, van de Hoef TP, Meuwissen M, Voskuil M, Chamuleau SA, Henriques JP, Verberne HJ, van Eck-Smit BL, Koch KT, de Winter RJ, Spaan JA, Tijssen JG, Siebes M, Piek JJ. Increased hyperaemic coronary microvascular resistance adds to the presence of myocardial ischaemia. EuroIntervention 2014; 9:1423-1431
Gutierrez E, Flammer AJ, Lerman LO, Elizaga J, Lerman A, Fernandez-Aviles F. Endothelial dysfunction over the course of coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J 2013; 34:3175-3181
Matsuzawa Y, Sugiyama S, Sugamura K, Nozaki T, Ohba K, Konishi M, et al. Digital assessment of endothelial function and ischemic heart disease in women. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 55:1688-1696
Takagi Y, Yasuda S, Takahashi J, Tsunoda R, Ogata Y, Seki A, Sumiyoshi T, Matsui M, Goto T, Tanabe Y, Sueda S, Sato T, Ogawa S, Kubo N, Momomura S, Ogawa H, Shimokawa H; Japanese Coronary Spasm Association. Clinical implications of provocation tests for coronary artery spasm: safety, arrhythmic complications, and prognostic impact: multicentre registry study of the Japanese Coronary Spasm Association. Eur Heart J 2013;34 :258-267
David Morow, James A. De Lemos, William E. Boden. Stable ischemic heart disease: Future perspective. In: Douglas P. Zipes, editor in chef. Braunwald's Heart Disease. 11th ed. Elsevier; 2019. p. 1254