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Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Belgrade)
2020, vol. 65, br. 2, str. 151-161
jezik rada: engleski
vrsta rada: izvorni naučni članak
objavljeno: 07/07/2020
doi: 10.2298/JAS2002151Y
Creative Commons License 4.0
Volovod (Orobanche spp.) u sočivu (Lens culinaris Medic.) - koliko su veliki gubici prinosa, kvaliteta, tržišne cene i profitabilnosti?
aTownship Directorate of Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Department of Agricultural Extension, Viransehir, Sanliurfa, Turkey
bThe University of Harran, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, S. Urfa, Turkey
cThe University of Harran, Vocational School of Akcakale, Department of Organic Agriculture, Sanliurfa, Turkey

e-adresa: ozberki@harran.edu.tr

Sažetak

Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je da se ispitaju uticaji veoma štetnih parazitskih biljaka (Orobache spp.) na prinos zrna, neke karakteristike kvaliteta, tržišnu cenu i gubitak profitabilnosti crvenog sočiva u glavnoj oblasti uzgajanja sočiva u jugoistočnoj Anatoliji. Poljski ogledi su sprovedeni u dva susedna polja zasejana sortama sočiva Yerli kırmızı (landrace) i Firat-87 korišćenjem oglednog dizajna podeljenih parcela u lokalitetu Yollar basi Viransehira u vegetacionom periodu useva 2018-2019. Sorte sočiva su postavljene u glavne parcele, a zakorovljenost volovodom (tj. 0, 5, 10, i 15 biljaka m-2) je stavljena u potparcele. Izračunati su prinos zrna, hektolitarska masa, masa hiljadu zrna i sadržaj proteina (%). Svi uzorci zrna predstavljeni su slučajno izabranim kupcima zrna na lokalnom tržištu robe i ocenjene su ponude tržišnih cena. Rezultati su pokazali da zakorovljenost volovodom od 0-15 biljaka m-2 značajno smanjuje prinos zrna od 2033.33 kg ha-1 do 833.33 kg ha-1 za 59%. Iako nije značajno, sorta Firat-87 (1512.5 kg ha-1) je imala viši prinos nego sorta Yerli Kırmızı (1325 kg ha-1). Regresione jednačine odnosa smanjenja prinosa useva prema zakorovljenosti volovodom pokazale su se značajnim i pouzdanim sa visokim koeficijentima determinacije za obe sorte. Neki vizuelni kriterijumi kao što je hektolitarska masa i masa hiljadu zrna nisu bili ozbiljno oštećeni. Kupci su ponudili vrlo slične tržišne cene za zrna mahunarki sa svim nivoima oštećenja. Ekonomski gubitak je bio ogroman ($555 ha-1). Regresione jednačine izvedene iz prinosa zrna nasuprot gustinama zakorovljenosti bile su pouzdane sa visokim koeficijentima determinacije i mogu se savršeno koristiti za procene prinosa pri različitim nivoima zakorovljenosti volovodom. Zaključeno je da zakorovljenost od preko 15% može dovesti do katastrofalnih gubitaka prinosa u proizvodnji sočiva. Stoga se neke agronomske mere moraju brzo preduzeti.

Ključne reči

crveno sočivo; Orobanche; prinos zrna; kvalitet; tržišne cene; profitabilnost

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